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| Index

| Index


ABO blood groups 114

accipiters 80

acclimation 85

actual evapotranspiration 54

adaptation 90

adaptation and deterioration of environment 92

adaptive radiations 130, 290

adaptive suite 100

adiabatic cooling 34, 36, 40

adiabatic warming 34

advantage of chromosomes 113

agents of evolution 124

age-specific death rate 136

age-specific selection 126

alarm calls 224, 318

albatrosses 165

algae 57, 67, 234

allele 111

allopatric speciation 127

allotetraploidy 128

alternative mating tactics 219

alternative stable states 404

altricial 163, 217

ambush predators 80

amplitude, or domain of attraction, stability 405

angiosperms 290

annual march of precipitation 55

annual march of temperature 55

annual rainfall 70

ant 100

antiherbivore defenses 81, 98

ants 231, 232

aphid 51

apparent competition 236

apparent plants 186, 331

aquatic ecosystems 65

aquatic systems 53

arboreal habits 104

area-climate hypothesis 23

ascorbic acid 98

asexual reproduction 134

aspect diversity 315

assimilation 82, 86

asteroid impact hypothesis 20

atmosphere 30, 55

atmospheric currents 31

autosomes 114

autotrophs 7

average daily temperatures 38

average yearly precipitation 41


camels 97

camouflage 102

canalization 119

carbon dating 18

cardinal 275

catbird 275

cattle 234

cattle egrets 234

cell nuclei 112

Cepaea nemoralis 126

certainty of paternity 215

changing environments 119

chaparral 41, 48, 55, 76

chemoreceptors 99

chick addition experiments 166

chimney swifts 165

chimpanzees 114

chromosomes 111-114

circadian and seasonal rhythms 74

cladistics 337

cladogram 337

clams 29

classical biogeography 22, 24, 27

climate 29, 48

climax 60, 63, 363

climograph 42

clover 236

coadapted alleles 113

coarse-grained utilization 284

cobras 80

Cocos Island finch 130

coevolution 329

coevolutionary interactions 120

cohort 135

colonizing species 62, 185

commensalism 228, 234

community 7

competition 228, 273

competitive ability 91

competitive mutualism 237

complementarity of niche dimensions 276

compression hypothesis 287-288

conflicts of interest 121

constancy 404

consumers 7

continental climates 36

continental drift 24- 27

cooling 36, 40

Coriolis force 33

cost of locomotion 90

costs and benefits 105

creosote bush 97

crocodilians 106

croppers 88

crossovers 112

cryptic coloration 315

cyclic inbreeding 223

cyclic stability 405


daily march of temperature 51

day length 38

daylength hypothesis 167

death rates 8

debates and progress 13, 15

deciduous 75

decomposers 7-8, 58, 349, 360

deep-sea fish 99, 232

demes 134

demographic stochasticity 153

demography 134

density independent processes 13

density-dependent selection 126

density-independent selection 126

deserts 48, 51

desiccating effects of dry winds 52

desiccation 97

design constraints 103, 105

desmids 67

deterioration of environment 90-91

determinate layers 163

developmental flexibility 91, 119

developmental plasticity 116, 119

diatoms 67

differential reproductive success 11, 280

diffuse competition 277, 370

dinosaurs 20

diploid 111

direct interactions 408

directional selection 124

dispersal 2, 338, 425

disruptive coloration 317

disruptive selection 124

disturbance 64, 402

DNA 112

DNA amplification 337

DNA hybridization 115

domain of attraction 403, 405

dominance 111

Drepanid honey creepers 130

dung beetles 99


earth's rotation 30

earthworms 58

echolocation 99, 100

ecoclines 61-62

ecological community 7

ecological genetics 126

ecological niche 267-268

ecology 5

ecophysiology 83

ecosystem 7

ecotones 61

ectoparasites 322

ectotherm 86

ectothermic homeothermy 104

ectotherms 95

egestion 86

eigenvalue 149, 365, 404

eigenvector 150, 365

electivities 274

electric fish 99

elephants 29

elliptical orbit of earth 37

endemic species 133

endoparasites 322

endosymbionts 223

endotherms 86, 95, 290

energetics of metabolism 102

energetics of movement 86

energy budgets 72, 285

environment 5

environmental cues 100

environmental physiology 83

environmental stochasticity 153

environmentally flexible traits 115

environmentally induced phenotypic varieties 119

environmentally induced polymorphism 116

epigamic selection 215

epilimnion 65, 66

epiphytes 48

equatorial heat 34

equinox 37

Escherichia coli 172

euglossine bees 233

eukaryotes 103, 232

Euler's equation 150

eurythermy 101

eusocial 222

eutrophic lakes 67

eutrophication 67

evapotranspiration 53-54

evergreen 75

evergreen conifers 48

evergreen leaves 76

evergreen versus deciduous dichotomy 76

evolution 8

evolution for the benefit of the group 120

evolution of dominance 111

evolution of endothermy 290

evolution of homeothermy 103

evolution of metabolic pathways 98

evolution of virulence 325

expectation of future offspring 143

expectation of life at age x 139

expenditure per progeny 160

exploitation competition 229, 236

extinction group selection 121


Galápagos Islands 129

gametes 112

geckos 104

gene 111

gene flow 118-119, 124, 127

gene frequency 8, 117

gene pools 114, 117, 119

generalization 280

generation time 141, 150, 172

genetic background 116

genetic bottleneck 118, 425

genetic drift 118, 124

genetic load 118

genetic polymorphisms 126

genetic similarity between humans and chimps 115

genetic stochasticity 425

genetic variability 110, 120

genetics 110

genotype 111

genotypic variation 119

geographic speciation 127

geological time scale 18-20

glacial periods 127

glaciation 17

glaciers 127

global stability 403

glucose 56

graded group selection 121

gradient analysis 61

granivore 88

grasshoppers 116

grasslands 48, 55, 97

grazers 88

great American biotic interchange 21

gross primary productivity 53

gross reproductive rate 141

groundwater 53

group selection 120, 121, 221

growth 86

guild structure 349

guinea pig 98


habitat requirements 280

Hamilton's rule 221

handicap hypothesis 219

haploid 111

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium 117

hare 193

harems 217

harvesting efficiency 79

Hawaiian islands 130

hawk alarm calls 319

hawks 29, 80

hazards of migration - residual reproductive value hypothesis 168

heart weight 90

heat budgets 93

helpers at the nest 223-224

herbivory 81, 100, 236

heritability 114

heterogametic 114

heterosis 118

heterotrophs 7

heterozygote advantage 118

heterozygotes 111

high pressure area 40

high specific heat of water 65

Himalayas 24

HIV 329

home range 88-89

homeotherms 24, 83, 86, 95

Homo sapiens 172

homogametic 114

homologous chromosomes 112

homozygotes 111

honey badger 232

honey guide 232

horizontal interactions 237

horned lizards 100

horse latitudes 31

humidity 51

hummingbird 88

Hungarian partridge 44

hunters 88

hunting time 286

hybrid sterility 128

hypolimnion 65, 66


magnetic fields 99

maintenance of genetic variation 118

major extinctions 19

making time 73

mammals 114

mantid 82

mantle 27

mapping genes 113

maritime 41

maritime climates 36, 42

master limiting factor 53, 70

mating preferences 214

mature soil 60

maximal rate of natural increase 150

mean 135

Mediterranean fruit fly 44

meiosis 112, 113, 124

meiotic drive 124

Mendelian genetics 110

Mendelian lottery 112

Mendelian populations 117, 134

Mendelian ratios 116

mesophytic leaf 76, 77

Mesozoic 290

metabolic inactivity 96

metabolic pathways 98

metabolic rates 87

metapopulations 379

meteorology 29

microclimates 49

microhabitat selection 53

microhabitats 29, 53

mimicry 320

minimum viable population size 425

minnows 236

monogamy 214- 216

monolayers 78

monomorphic species 120

monophyly 337

moths 99, 222

mountain ranges 127

Müllerian mimicry 228, 320

multidimensional overlap 278

multidimensional utilization data 278

multi-layered plants 78

multiple causality 5, 294

murder 136

mustelids 103

mutation pressure 124

mutualisms 228, 231


paleoclimatology 17

paleomagnetic anomalies 26-27

palynological analyses 18

Pangaea 26

parasitism 228

parasitoid 322

parent materials 58

parental care 222

particulate inheritance 110

patchy environments 284, 285

pathways of heat gains and losses 94

peacock 218, 219

pedigree studies 119

pedology 58

performance curves 71-72

periodic tables of niches 290

periphyton 53

pH 42, 53

phenotype 111

phenotypic variation 119

pheromones 99, 128

photoperiod 38

photosynthesis 56-57, 77

phylogenetic systematics 337

physiological inertia 103

physiological rules 90

phytogeography 22

phytoplankton 29, 67, 68

pit vipers 99

pivotal age assumption 139

plankton 186

plant growth forms 48

plants 29, 48, 55, 75-78, 97, 186, 331, 416

poikilotherms 86, 97, 279

point attractors 403

point diversity 390, 393

polarized light 99

pollinators 233

polyandry 213, 215

polygyny 213, 215, 216

polymorphic species 120

population 134

population genetics 117

population parameters 8, 135

population regulation 13

population viability analysis 425

postzygotic isolating mechanisms 128

potential evapotranspiration 54

prairie 58

precession of the beneficial effects of allele 171

precipitation 39

precocial 163

predation 228

predator switching behaviors 125, 408

present value of future offspring 144

prey diversity hypothesis 167

prezygotic isolating mechanisms 128

primary producers 65

primary production 53

primary succession 59, 62

primate phylogeny 115

principle of allocation 72, 79

principle of equal opportunity 274

productivity 67, 86, 88

prokaryotic organisms 103

promiscuity 214

protozoans 234

pseudoreplication 294

punctuated equilibria 20

pursuit time 80, 285


rain forests 48, 60

rainshadow effect 36

random mating 110, 117

ratel 232

reaction norm 116

realized niche 271, 274

reassortment 111

recession of the overt effects of an allele 171

recessive 111

reciprocal altruism 223, 225

recombination 112

regulatory genes 114

relative fitnesses 118

replacement rate 142

reproduction 86

reproductive effort 156

reproductive isolating mechanisms 127-128

reproductive tactics 105

reproductive value 143, 169

residual reproductive value 146

resilience 404, 406, 410

resistance 404

resource budgets 72

resource depression 236

resource matrix 274

resource utilization 277

resource utilization functions 268

respiration 86

reversals in magnetic polarity 26

risks of foraging 74

r-K selection continuum 172

rmax 150, 172

rock pipits 75

root 97

rules of inheritance 110

rumen 234

runaway sexual selection 218


saber-toothed blenny 232

satellite males 219

savannas 48

seafloors 27

sea level changes 17

sea lion 217

sea stars 29

seafloor spreading 27

search 80, 283

search image 120, 125

search time 80, 285

search time per item 283

search time per item encountered 283

seasonality of precipitation 64

second filial generation 110

secondary succession 60, 62, 63

seeds 232

segment 135

segregate 111

segregation distortion 116

self-deceipt 225

selfish behavior 221

selfish genes 116, 120

self-replicating molecular assemblage 16

semelparity 154

sensory capacities 100

sensory exploitation 219

sentinels 224

serpentine soils 59

sex chromosomes 114

sex ratio 207, 220

sexual dimorphisms 103, 215-218

sexual selection 126, 186, 220

sexual size dimorphism 103

sexy son 213

shade tolerance 57, 63, 76

shrew 88

sibling species 115

sit-and-wait foraging mode 80

SLOSS debate 425

snails 29, 129

snakes 80, 99

social behavior 88, 220- 221, 323

soil 48, 51, 60

soil formation 58

soil horizons 59

soil maturity 59

soil moisture availability 77

soil types 61, 64

soil water potential 76

soil-dwelling organisms 58

soil-forming factors 58

soils 77

solar radiation 31

solstice 37

sparrows 29, 134

spatially varying environments 119

specialization 280

specific heat of water 36

sperm precedence 223

spiders 80

spring bloom hypothesis 167

squirrel 100

stabilizing selection 124

stable age distribution 147

starlings 165

stationary age distribution 148

stepping stones 428

strange attractors 405

stratification of lake waters 66

stratified lakes 66

structural genes 114, 115

succession 62, 67

surface/body volume ratios 86, 102

surface-to-volume ratio 102

survivorship 140, 141, 172

survivorship curve 137

suspect terraines 26

swimming 90

symbiosis 231

symbiotic prokaryotic organisms 232

sympatric speciation 128

synecology 345

systems ecology 347