Zoo 323 Human Biology (K. Kalthoff)

Exams Spring 1998

First Midterm Exam (19 February 1998)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1-2. According to the racial origin hypothesis of modern Homo sapiens, single differences between extant humans must have originated less than 200,000 years ago.

3-4. A motherıs milk contains antibodies against antigens from her baby as well as harmless bacteria that will crowd out toxic bacteria in her environment.

5-6. The epiglottis acts as a lid on the thyroid opening of the larynx and is hinged ventrally to the cranial cartilage.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

7. Which of the following hominids is thought to have evolved in Africa and then migrated elsewhere?
a. Archaic Homo sapiens
b. Homo erectus
c. Modern Homo sapiens
d. all of the above

8. The Acheulian industry of stone tools is associated with
a. Homo habilis
b. Homo erectus
c. Archaic Homo sapiens
d. Modern Homo sapiens

9. Scavenging is thought to have imposed a positive selection for hominid
a. communication
b. cooperation
c. stone tool use
d. all of the above

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

10-11.About 90% of human _______________ DNA is so-called junk DNA, in which mutations accumulate without positive or negative _______________.

12-13.Most scavengers cannot crack the skulls and bones of large animals to access their _______________ and bone marrow, but hominids with a _______________ can.

14-15.An animal communication system is classified as a _______________ if the ³speaker² is aware of the arbitrary connection between ____________________ and referents, as indicated by an ability of the ³speaker² to lie.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

16. Hominoid Phylogeny
a. Based on morphological criteria, humans and chimps are more closely related than gorillas and chimps.
b. Molecular data indicate that humans are separated from all great apes (pongidae) by similar genetic distances.
c. DNA hybridization data and morphological criteria have led to the same results about hominoid phylogeny.
d. Small changes in nuclear DNA (mutations) may have major morphological effects.

17. Australopithecus afarensis (Aa)
a. Aa fossils are dated about 3.5 mya.
b. Aa had large canines and nearly parallel rows of strong premolars and molars.
c. The relative brain size of Aa was much greater than that of extant apes.
d. Aa was bipedal.

18. Homo erectus
a. Homo erectus has been found at sites dated between 1.9 and 0.3 mya.
b. Homo erectus was the first habitually bipedal hominid.
c. Homo erectus had a cranial capacity of about 1,500 cm3.
d. Homo erectus evolved first in Asia and then spread to Europe and Africa.

19. Neanderthals
a. lived from about 2 million to 200,000 years ago
b. used fire regularly
c. cared for their sick and aged
d. buried their dead

20. Language of Non-Human Primates
a. Vervet monkeys have specific alarm calls for several different predators.
b. The vocalizations of vervet monkeys show syntax and grammar.
c. Captive chimps and bonobos have learned artificial languages based on hand signs and plastic chips.
d. Captive bonobos can learn to understand simple English language.

21-30. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Femoral Neck Suppose you visit friends in Ethiopia and stumble upon a hominid fossil, specifically, the upper end of a hominid femur. Your excitement hightens when the sediment in which you found the bone is dated 5.1 million years ago. A. How could you find out whether the specimen belonged to a habitually bipedal organism? B. Support your answer in part A by explaining how the biomechanical forces acting on a critical part of the upper femur differ in quadrupedal versus habitually bipedal primates.

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Late Stone Age Tools A. How do paleontologists refer to late stone age tools, and which hominid species are these tools associated with? B. In general terms, how do late stone age tools differ from middle and early stone age tools? C. Describe a type of stone tool that occurs abundantly in the late stone age but not earlier. D. Outline some of the variations of the tools described in part C and their apparent uses. E. Which technical advances were critical to making the tools described in part C?

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Sequencers A. Define in terms of function the units of the brain that Calvin (1994) refers to as ³sequencers². B. Briefly describe one line of evidence indicating that sequencers exist and where they are located. C. Define the process of encephalization in hominid evolution. D. Outline Calvinıs hypothesis on the role of sequencers in encephalization.


Second Midterm Exam (2 April 1998)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1./2. Measurements of the variation of a human trait by variance analysis may depend on the heritability of the environmental conditions under which the trait of interest was measured.

3./4. Because the hormone receptor distribution in the brain is characteristic for each activity the prevailance of different hormones in men and women translates into different brain receptor patterns.

5./6. The reproductive fitness of an individual encompasses its own inclusive success plus any changes caused in the reproductive success of kin multiplied by the degree of relatedness.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

7. The unilateral killing of American Indians by germs introduced by Europeans is ascribed to
a. more diverse livestock of Europeans
b. greater genetic polymorphism in the immune system of Europeans
c. both of the above
d. none of the above

8. Genetic maps are based on
a. a natural exchange of chromosome fragments
b. DNA cloning
c. DNA sequencing
d. none of the above is correct

9. Androgen and estrogen receptors in mammalian brains
a. differ in concentration from one brain region to another
b. are distributed similarly in males and females
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

10. Which of the following variables may affect the inclusive fitness but not the simple (or Darwinian) fitness of an individual?
a. number of relatives
b. reproductive value of relatives
c. relatedness to relatives
d. all of the above

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

11./12. Small hunter-gatherer communities cannot sustain _______________ diseases because these diseases require a constant supply of living and _________________ hosts.

13./14. According to the ___________________ hypothesis, perinatal exposure to ____________________ permanently alters the brain.

15./16. The _______________ cause of a behavior is the adaptive, or gene- propagating, function for which it has been positively _______________ in evolution.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

17. Races
a. Races are subdivisions of a species that differ significantly in heritable traits.
b. The evolution of races occurs gradually as part of a speciation process.
c. Races evolve through natural selection, sexual selection, or genetic drift.
d. Race formation is prevented by geographic barriers.

18. Incest Taboo
a. The incest taboo forbids marriages between parents and their children.
b. The incest taboo prohibits marriages between siblings.
c. Early childhood playmates tend to be sexually attracted to each other after puberty.
d. The adaptive significance of the incest taboo is to avoid inbreeding depression.

19. Malaria
a. Malaria is caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium.
b. Plasmodium is transfered between human hosts by fleas.
c. A mutant form of the malaria parasite, known as Plasmodium S, confers resistance to sickle cell anemia.
d. Humans in malaria-infested regions are also resistant to cystic fibrosis.

20. Lordosis in Rats
a. Normal female rats show lordosis when they are sexually receptive and mounted by a male.
b. Females cease to exhibit lordosis after removal of their ovaries.
c. Injection of estrogen and progesterone causes lordosis behavior in ovariectomized females as well as castrated males.
d. Females exposed to testosterone prenatally do not show lordosis when injected with estrogen and progesterone.

21-30. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Problems in Gene Therapy
A. What is a transgene, and how is it used in restorative gene therapy of somatic cells?
B. What is the role of vectors in the same context?
C. According to the article by Friedman (1995) that was one of your assigned readings, what are the two most extensively used types of vector today? Name these vectors and briefly outline their advantages and problems.
D. What alternatives to the vectors discussed in section C are being explored?

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Gay Genes
In an attempt to map one or more gene involved in male homosexuality (³gay genes²), Hamer and coworkers combined a lineage analysis with an allele sharing study.
A. How was the lineage analysis designed, what kind of data were obtained, and how did the investigators arrive at the conclusion that one or more gay genes are X- linked?
B. What are the two general principles that an allele sharing study is based on?
C. How were these principles utilized to map one or more gay genes to a particular region of the X chromosome?

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Sex Determination
Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the SRY+ gene located on the Y chromosome.
A. What evidence indicates that the SRY+ gene is necessary for male development?
B. What evidence indicates that the homologue of the SRY+ gene in mice can be sufficient for male development?


Final Exam (13 May 1998)

MATCH UP (1 point each)

Following are lists of fossil life forms or artifacts (1-8) and their approximate dates (a- h). Match up by entering the appropriate letters in the spaces behind the numbers.

1. First hominids

2. First placental mammals

3. Homo erectus

4. Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis)

5. Modern Homo sapiens

6. Neanderthals

7. Oldowan stone tools

8. Paleolithic cave paintings

a. 70 mya
b. 5 mya
c. 3.5 mya
d. 2.5-1.2 mya
e. 1.9-0.3 mya
f. 150 kya to present
g. 150-30 kya
h. 20-10 kya

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

9/10. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA are considered to be mostly molecular with regard to selection and therefore represent a neutral clock.

11/12 The fact that most humans are content is ascribed to the fact that mothers tend to carry their babies on the left arm because then they hear the maternal heart beat and are more likely to be right-handed.

13/14 In bonobos, the use of genito-genital rubbing promotes contests among genetically unrelated females, who cooperate successfully in bonding with males.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

15. Androgen insensitivity, or testicular feminization, is based on
a. lack of testosterone
b. lack of anti-Müllerian hormone
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

16. Which of the following primate species show thr greatest sexual size dimorphism (males bigger than females)
a. bonobos
b. gibbons
c. gorillas
d. humans

17. Total fertility rates in developing countries have been lowered by
a. the use of modern contraceptives
b. menıs education
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

18. Worldwide, the greatest use of freshwater by humans is for
a. agricultural irrigation
b. big cities
c. hydroelectric power
d. industries

19. The extent and pattern of global warming observed over the past 50 years is best explained by
a. aerosol cooling
b. the greenhouse effect of certain gases
c. a combination of the above
d. none of the above is correct

FILL IN THE BLANKS (Maximum 2 points each)

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

20/21 The unilateral transfer of epidemic diseases from Europeans to native Americans is ascribed to the Europeansı greater number of _______________ herd animals, which is thought to have left Europeans _______________ against a wider variety of microbes that transferred from animal to human hosts.

22/23 One explanation of senescence is based on genes with _______________ pleitropy that enhance _______________ early in life at the cost of decreased longevity or reduced fitness later in life.

24/25 So-called lesbian sea gulls are pairs of female sea gulls who were observed _______________ together in areas where functional males were _______________ because of exposure to chemical estrogen mimics.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements - or partial statements -are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

26. Sequencers
a. are located in the pre-motor area
b. function in complex and rapid movements
c. innervate skeletal muscles
d. tend to be lateralized

27. Genetic Chromosome Maps
a. are based on crossover frequencies
b. are limited to cloned genes
c. display genes as well as simple molecular markers
d. use 1cM (centimorgan) as a unit

28. ADA Gene Therapy
The first human gene therapy against adenosine deaminase deficiency can be classified as
a. an ex vivo therapy
b. a gene addition therapy
c. a germ line therapy
d. a restorative therapy

29. Telomerase
a. Telomerase is an enzyme.
b. Telomerase breaks down telomeric DNA.
c. Somatic cells have the highest telomerase activity.
d. Most cancer cells have lost telomerase activity.

30. Enzymes
a. Aromatase converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone
b. Monamine oxidase metabolizes neurotransmitters
c. Superoxide dismutase reduces hydrogen peroxide to water.
d. Telomerase degrades telomeric DNA.

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Bonobo Language
A. Outline a set of training efforts in which a bonobo, Kanzi, learned to communicate with his human trainers through the use of lexigrams (tiles with optical symbols).
B. What did the trainers do to ensure that Kanzi learned "meaning" rather than "tricks", for instance, that a certain tile meant "apple", as distinct from "orange" or "banana", and not simply any fruit that the trainer held in her hand?
C. What did the trainers do to ensure that Kanzi pointed out the correct lexigrams in response to spoken words and not in response to non-verbal cues from his trainers? D. How much did Kanzi learn, and what do the results tell us about the apparent limitation to spoken language in bonobos?

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Heritability of Discontinuously Variable Traits
A. Define discontinuously variable traits and give two examples.
B. What method is generally used to assess the heritability of discontinuously variable traits?
C. Suppose you have a rare discontontinuously variable trait, such as having six digits instead of five. In this case, the standard method described in section (B) may not be practical because not enough people can be located who have six digits and a monozygotic twin. Under these circumstances, what could be done to assess whether there is a genetic predisposition for the trait or whether it can be ascribed entirely to environmental effects, such as maternal diet or exposure to toxins during pregnancy in the case of six digits?

51-60. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Asymmetry in Reproductive Potential and Parental Investment
A. Explain the asymmetries in reproductive potential and parental investment for women and men.
B. On the basis of these differences, what reproductive strategies do behavioral ecologists predict for women? For men? For both?
C. Are the differences in male versus female reproductive strategies according to part B reflected in ³double standards² of societal morals? Discuss three examples.

61-70. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Senescence: Mutation Accumulation Hypothesis
A. How is senescence defined as a statistical phenomenon?
B. State the mutation accumulation hypothesis to explain senescence.
C. Suppose you wanted to increase longevity and fertility at old age of a population of fruit flies. Based on the mutation accumulation hypothesis stated in part B, how would you proceed?

71-80. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Water Scarcity
A. Outline the hydrological cycle from which humans draw their water supplies.
B. Which fraction of the available runoff (AR) is currently being withdrawn by humans?
C. Which other functions of the AR would be compromised by increased withdrawal?
D. Most of the AR is used for agricultural irrigation. If the amount of water available for irrigation could be doubled, would the total amount of food produced also double? Explain.


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