BIO 346 Human Biology (K. Kalthoff)

Exams, Fall, 1996

First Midterm Exam
26 September 1996

MULTIPLE CHOICE (Maximum 1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

1. Gorillas are
a. ant eaters
b. carnivores (meat eaters)
c. herbivores (plant eaters)
d. omnivores (eating significant amounts of both plants and meat)

2. Which of the following hominoids are threatened by extinction?
a. bonobos
b. gorillas
c. orangutan
d. all of the above

3. Which of the following species is considered to be a hominid?
a. Australopithecus afarensis
b. Proconsul africanus
c. both of the above
d. none of the above

4. Which of the following features sets Australopithecus afarensis apart from extant apes?
a. length of fore limbs
b. pelvis and legs
c. prognathism (protruding face)
d. relative brain size

5. Hominids separated from the chimpanzee/bonobo lineage approximately
a. 80,000 years ago
b. 800,000 years ago
c. 8 million years ago
d. 80 million years ago

6. According to the single-origin hypothesis, modern Homo sapiens evolved first in
a. Africa
b. Europe
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

7. Modern Homo sapiens is thought to have originated approximately
a. 15,000 years ago
b. 150,000 years ago
c. 1.5 million years ago
d. 15 million years ago

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging two single words. Circle these two words within each statement.

8/9. Compared to other primates, Prosimii are characterized by a relatively short snout with a rhinarium, a "dental comb", and relatively long gestation periods.

10/11. While taxonomic systems based on different clocks are more likely to reflect the time course of evolution, taxonomic systems based on morphological criteria are more indicative of molecular life strategies.

FILL IN THE BLANKS (1 point each word)

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. Hyphenated words count as one word.

12/13. If single-stranded DNA from two different species is allowed to ____________________, the melting point of the resulting double-stranded DNA decreases with the percentage of ____________________ nucleotide pairs.

14/15. Most hominid fossils represent ____________________ branches of an evolutionary "bush", and few if any such fossils are likely to be a direct human ____________________.

16/17. The great size variation among the fossil specimens identified as Australopithecus afarensis can be ascribed to ____________________ size dimorphism or taken as an indication that these specimens represent more than one ____________________.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (Maximum 1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

18. Homo erectus
a. The postcranial skeleton of Homo erectus is still apelike with legs shorter than arms.
b. The braincase of Homo erectus is a flat vault with heavy brow ridges and a cone-shaped occipital bone.
c. At least one Homo erectus skeleton has bone abnormalities characteristic of hypervitaminosis A, indicating consumption of large amounts of meat.
d. Homo erectus is associated with the Acheulian stone tool industry.

19. Neanderthals
a. Neanderthals were first discovered in Africa.
b. The cranial capacity of adult Neanderthals is less than 800 ccm.
c. Neanderthals buried their dead.
d. Most caveman cartoons are based on actual Neanderthal cave paintings in Southern France.

20. Modern Homo sapiens
a. Modern Homo sapiens were generally more slender than Neanderthals.
b. The braincase of Modern Homo sapiens is shorter and higher than that of Neanderthals.
c. The cranial capacity of Modern Homo sapiens is greater than that of Neanderthals.
d. With speer throwers as well as bows and arrows, Modern Homo sapiens were superior hunters.

21-30. SHORT ESSAY (Maximum 10 points) Pelvis of Chimps and Humans

Compare the pelvis of chimpanzees and modern Homo sapiens with regard to the following features. Outline the significance of each feature for human habitual bipedalism.
A. length of pelvis
B. shape of ilium
C. origin and insertion of gluteus medius and gluteus minimus
D. function of gluteus medius and gluteus minimus

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Maximum 10 points) Oldowan Tools

A. List four types of Oldowan stone tools and their presumed uses, if any.
B. Outline two types of evidence on which our assumptions about the use of these tools are based.
C. Describe and/or draw the procedure by which the smallest Oldowan stone tools were made.

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Maximum 10 points) Agriculture

A. What are the two defining criteria of agriculture?
B. When approximately do the signs of agriculture appear in the prehistoric record?
C. Why has the introduction of agriculture been characterized as a mixed blessing?

Second Midterm Exam
7 November, 1996

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging two single words. Circle these two words within each statement.

1/2. Races are generally defined as species within populations that differ significantly in heritable traits.

3/4. The penile groove (or sinus) forms the urogenital urethra in the male and the vestibule of the vagina in the female.

5/6. The inclusive tenet of sociobiologists is that each individual behaves in such a way as to maximize his/her basic fitness.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

7. Races may originate by
a. genetic drift (random mutations without selection)
b. natural selection
c. sexual selection
d. all of the above

8. The development of testes versus ovaries in mammals is controlled by
a. the level of sex hormones in the embryo
b. the activity of the SRY gene in the gonad
c. the mother's waist-to-hip ratio
d. none of the above is correct

9. Which of the following variables may affect the inclusive fitness but not the simple (or Darwinian) fitness of an individual?
a. number of relatives
b. reproductive value of relatives
c. relatedness to relatives
d. all of the above

10. Most human societies are
a. polygynous
b. monogamous
c. polyandrous
d. none of the above is correct

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

11. Language of Non-Human Primates
a. Vervet monkeys have several different alarm calls, which they use being fully aware of their specific meaning.
b. Kanzi, a bonobo, was able to learn the meaning of about 150 tile symbols.
c. Kanzi also learned to understand spoken English sentences like "Bring Panshiba an onion!".
d. After many years of training, Kanzi also spoke English at the level of a two-year-old human child.

12. Malaria
a. Malaria is caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium
b. Plasmodium is transfered between human hosts by fleas.
c. A mutant form of malaria, known as Plasmodium S confers resistance to sickle cell anemia.
d. Humans in malaria-infested regions are also resistant to cystic fibrosis.

13. Human Genome Project
a. The human genome consists of about 3 billion base pairs.
b. Genetic maps of chromosomes are based on statistical frequencies of gene separation by crossing over between homologous chromosomes.
c. Physical maps of chromosomes are based on the study of chromosomal deletions, in situ hybridizations of labeled probes to chromosomes, and/or contigs (collections of overlapping cloned DNA segments).
d. Microsatellites (also known as STRPs) do not differ from one human to another and are therefore especially useful as molecular markers on chromosomal maps.

14. Heritability
a. Heritability is a numerical value describing to which extent a variable trait is controlled by genetic factors.
b. The heritability of physical traits is generally high whereas the heritability of behavioral trait is generally low.
c. The heritability of a continuous trait can be assessed by the within-pair correlation for that trait in monozygotic twins raised apart.
d. The heritability of discontinuous traits can be expressed as the concordance ratio for that trait in monozygotic over dizygotic twins.

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

15/16. The low position of the _______________ as found in human adults generates an extended area of crossing between the pathways for _______________ and food.

17/18. Small hunter-gatherer communities cannot sustain _______________ diseases because these diseases require a constant supply of uninfected but _________________ hosts.

19/20. Once a mutant allele of a _______________ has been sequenced, it is only a small step to devise an inexpensive procedure for testing whether the mutant allele is actually _______________ in a given individual adult or fetus.

21-30. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) First Human Gene Therapy

A. Describe the first human gene therapy for adenosine deaminase deficiency.
B. Why did this therapy have to be repeated every few months? Which improvement in this respect is currently under way?
C. Is the effectiveness of this particular gene therapy proven? (Hint: This question has to do with the different primary objective of scientists versus physicians.)

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Chromosomal Markers for Male Homosexuality

A. Outline the general principles on which the genetic mapping of genes by the allele sharing method is based.
B. Describe how Hamer et al. (1993) used this method to identify apparent molecular markers for male homosexuality. (Assume it is already agreed upon that some genes affecting male homosexuality are located on the X chromosome.)

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Organizational Hypothesis

A. State the organizational hypothesis for hormonal effects on mammalian brain development.
B. Describe two studies with laboratory rats (one morphometric and one behavioral) on which this hypothesis is based.
C. Outline and interpret related observations on human girls with progestin-induced pseudohermaphroditism.

Final Exam
14 December, 1996

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1/2. A chimp's foot is more similar to a human foot than to a human hand.

3/4. Infectious diseases have repeatedly decimated human populations, exerting a strong positive resistance for any traits that conferred disease selection.

5/6. Genetic gene therapy is an attempted correction of a somatic defect in somatic cells with no direct benefit to the patient's germ line.

7/8. Inclusive relatedness encompasses the focal individuals's own simple fitness plus the increase (or decrease) in the simple fitness of any kin multiplied by the degree of fitness.

9/10 The lack of divisions in somatic cells is one of several safeguards against cancer but also a restriction on the total number of cell telomerase.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

11. In a walking human, the gluteus medius and minimus muscles on the left side contract
a. during the stance phase of the left leg
b. during the swing phase of the right leg
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

12. The oldest hominid stone tools are dated
a. 100 thousand years ago
b. 500 thousand years ago
c. 2 million years ago
d. 20 million years ago

13. Agriculture and animal husbandry originated about
a. 3,000 years ago
b. 10,000 years ago
c. 50,000 years ago
d. 200,000 years ago

14. Genetic maps are based on
a. a natural exchange of chromosome fragments
b. DNA cloning
c. DNA sequencing
d. none of the above is correct

15. The heritability of a continuously variable human trait can be assessed by
a. concordance in pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins
b. variance analysis
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

16. Genetically male (XY) individuals with androgen insensitivity (testicular feminization) develop
a. ovaries instead of testes
b. oviducts and a uterus
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

17. The distributions of androgen and estrogen receptors in mammalian brains
a. changes markedly from one brain region to another
b. is for the most part similar in males and females
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

18. Oxidants damage
a. DNA
b. lipids
c. Protein
d. all of the above is correct

FILL IN THE BLANKS (maximum 2 points each)

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

19/20.An animal communication system is classified as a _______________ if the "speaker" is aware of the connection between ____________________ and referents, as indicated by an ability of the "speaker" to lie.

21/22. _______________ selection is for heritable traits promoting survival in a given environment, whereas _______________ selection is for heritable traits appealing to mating partners.

23/24.The primitive division of labor - men scavenge or hunt while women ________________ and take care of children - maximizes the ________________ potential of a group.

25/26.There is a negative correlation between ________________ rate and women's _______________ , as measured by years of schooling.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

27. Physical Chromosome Maps (PCMs)
a. PCMs identify the position of genes in terms of some length measurement relative to the chromosome ends or to molecular markers.
b. Older PCMs were based on chromosomal rearrangements and in situ hybridizations.
c. In a modern sense, PCMs are contigs, that is, collections of overlapping segments of cloned DNA.
d. The PCMs of a given person differ from one cell type to another.

28. Germ Line
a. Germ line cells are defined as all the cells that contribute to reproductive organs.
b. The germ line cells form an unbroken chain of cellular continuity between generations.
c. All currently approved attempts at human gene therapy affect are carried out on germ line cells.
d. Telomerase is inactive in the germ line.

29. Relatedness in Bees
The genetic relatedness (r) of a female bee is
a. 0.5 for a son or daughter
b. 0.75 for a sister
c. 0.25 for a brother
d. 0.5 for a half-sister (same mother, different fathers)

30. Greenhouse Effect
a. The Greenhouse Effect is caused mainly by the release of pesticides.
b. Global average surface temperatures have increased with rising carbon dioxide concentrations.
c. The greenhouse effect is mitigated by aerosol cooling.
d. Global warming would raise the sea level.

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Australopithecines

Australopithecus afarensis and similar forms are considered to be close to a common ancestor of humans and the great apes.
A. List up to five features that Australopithecines share with great apes.
B. Summarize the evidence that Australopithecines were habitually bipedal, setting them apart from extant apes and close to subsequent hominids.
C. What may have been the adaptive avantage(s) of habitual bipedalism for Australopithecines in their environment?

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Sociobiological Explanation of Racial Bias

A. According to sociobiological theory, what is the ultimate cause of animal and human behavior?
B. Most humans tend to be more friendly and cooperative with individuals of their own race than with people of other races. Regrettable as this bias may be, can you think of a sociobiological explanation for it? (One or two sentences will suffice for an answer.)

51-60. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Aggression

A. Define aggression.
B. Outline some biological situations in which mammals including humans show aggression.
C. Describe one study on humans indicating a genetic component to agressiveness.
D. Outline one observation on humans indicating that aggression is in part learned behavior.

61-70. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Evolutionary Theory of Senescence

A. How is senescence defined as a statistical phenomenon?
B. State the mutation accumulation hypothesis to explain senescence.
C. According to the mutation accumulation hypothesis, how should the mean longevity of laboratory animals change if a population is propagated selectively by offspring from either young or old individuals?
D. Summarize the design and results of experiments done to test the predictions derived in part C.

71-80. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Estrogen Mimics

One of the best documented cases demonstrating the effects of chemical estrogen mimics are alligators in Lake Apopka, Florida. These effects were observed after a spill of the insecticides difocol and DDE from a chemical plant on the shore of this lake.
A. Which morphological abnormalities were observed in male alligators?
B. What abnormalities were observed in eggs?
C. Which hormonal changes were observed in young male alligators?
D. Which experiment was done with alligator eggs from an uncontaminated lake to test the hypothesis that the changed hormone levels in young males from Lake Apopka were in fact caused by difocol or DDE? (If you don't remember, design the experiment yourself.)
E. Outline the hormonal feedback loop proposed by Drs. Sharpe and Skakkebaek in the movie "The Assault on the Male" to explain the reproductive abnormalities observed in humans and wildlife exposed to estrogen mimics.

EXTRA CREDIT (Max. 5 pts)

The Austin American Statesman recently ran a report attributed to Rick Weiss of the Washington Post. The context was hormone replacement therapy for postmenopausal women, whose own ovaries have stopped producing estrogen. Many of them take a synthetic estrogen orally to ward off osteoporosis and heart disease. However, the prolonged exposure to estrogens may also increase the risk of breast cancer. A new study to explore the ramifications of estrogen replacement was reported as follows.

"A group of women (on replacement therapy with Estrace, a synthetic estrogen) drank pineapple juice mixed with vodka to raise their blood alcohol levels to the equivalent of having drunk two glasses of beer or wine. As alcohol levels climbed, so did their estrogen levels, peaking at about 325 percent of normal. Women not taking (Estrace) showed no increase in estrogen blood levels after drinking." The conclusion of the reporter, and possibly the authors of the study, was given in the newspaper report's headline, which read "Alcohol may radically raise estrogen levels, study shows".

A. Do the data as reported warrant the conclusion as stated? Can you think of an alternative explanation of the data?
B. Design an additional control that would make this experiment more conclusive. Remember a good control needs to duplicate the experiment in every detail except for the one variable that is being tested.


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