BIO 346 Human Biology (K. Kalthoff)

Exams Spring 1997

First Midterm Exam (30 September 1997)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each) The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1/2. Hominoidea are generally characterized as infant primates without a tail, complex brain and behavior, and extended periods of large development and dependency.

3/4. The low pathways of the larynx in adult humans generates an extended area of crossing between the position for air and food.

5/6. Speech control is lateralized to the left brain in almost all of the left-handed people and in the majority of the right-handed or ambidextrous people.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

7. The melting temperature of double-stranded DNA decreases with the
a. number of base-pair mismatches
b. amount of non-coding (³junk²) DNA
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

8. The skull of modern Homo sapiens, as compared to archaic Homo sapiens, is characterized by
a. occipital "bun"
b. prognathism
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

9. Vervet monkeys seem to be aware of the symbolic nature of their alarm calls because
a. conspecifics respond to them
b. they indicate the specific type of danger
c. individuals occasionally sound fake alarms
d. playbacks from tape elicit the same response as the original calls

10. Racial differences are ascribed to
a. natural selection
b. sexual selection
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

11/12. The _______________ angle between the _______________ and tibia allows humans to place their lower legs under their bodiesı center of gravity yet perpendicularly to the ground.

13/14. Human breast milk contains _______________ directed against antigens present in the environment of a mother and her _______________ .

15/16. Biological races are generally defined as populations within a _______________ that differ significantly in _______________ traits and/or in the frequencies of certain genetic alleles.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

17. Main Functions of Human Muscles
a. The gluteus maximus abducts the thigh.
b. The gluteus medius abducts the thigh.
c. The gluteus minimus extends the hip joint.
d. The opponens pollicis muscle extends the big toe.

18. Riparian Woodlands
a. Riparian woodlands are strips of forest destroyed by fire.
b. Animal carcasses disappear faster from riparian woodlands than from open grassland.
c. Large cats avoid riparian woodlands.
d. Riparian woodlands were advantageous to hominid scavengers.

19. Larynx
a. The larynx is positioned low in the neck of most mammals and human infants.
b. The larynx is positioned high in the neck of human adults.
c. The high position of the larynx allows the larynx to lock into the naso-pharynx, thus forming a passageway for air that is not disturbed by eating or drinking.
d. The high position of the larynx is more favorable than the low position for articulated speech.

20. Incest Taboo
a. The incest taboo forbids marriages between parents and their children.
b. The incest taboo prohibits marriages between siblings.
c. Early childhood playmates tend to be sexually attracted to each other after puberty.
d. The adaptive significance of the incest taboo is to avoid inbreeding depression.

21-30. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Fossil Hominids
Suppose you participate in a fossil hunt in East Africa, and you find a clearly hominid skull including most teeth. Some of the rock that includes the skull is dated 2.0 to 1.5 million years ago. You realize that your fossil could belong to one of three hominid species we have discussed in class.
A. Name those three hominid species.
B. Focus on two features of the skull: How would they have to be shaped or sized in order for you to assign the skull to one of the species named in part A? (Be as specific as you can here.)
C. Then if a genie came and granted you a wish for one additional object (bone or other) to help you confirm your skull diagnosis, what would you wish for, and how would you evaluate it?

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Scavenging with Oldowan Tools
A. Name the tools of the Oldowan tool kit and one activity for which each tool was used, if known.
B. Discuss evidence indicating that Oldowan tools were used for scavenging meat from the kills of large carnivores.

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Encephalization

A. What is encephalization, and how is it measured?
B. Illustrate the process of encephalization in the evolution of hominids by plotting brain volume versus body weight for hominids and non-hominid primates.
C. Outline the concept of ³sequencers², and what they may have to do with encephalization.


Second Midterm Exam (30 October 1997)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1./2. To map a marker gene by allele sharing, one searches for molecular disease alleles that are shared by diseased relatives more often than expected by chance.

3./4. The human SRY gene was mapped by searching for Y-linked markers in the DNA of reproductive males, that is, sterile males with some defects in sex-reversed organs.

5./6. Experiments with rodents indicate that the behavior of lordosis depends on prenatal presence of testosterone and on the absence of estrogen and progesterone during the behavior.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

7. Typical epidemic diseases are characterized by
a. long-term illness of host
b. restriction of parasite to human host
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

8. In humans, which of the following cell types are NOT renewed from stem cells
a. epidermal cells
b. lymphocytes
c. neurons
d. spermatozoa

9. On average, what fraction of their genes do dizygotic twins have in common?
a. 0.5
b. 0.75
c. 1.0
d. none of the above is correct

10. A sexually dimorphic human brain nucleus has been found in
a. the anterior hypothalamus
b. Brocaıs area
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

11./12. Generally, genetic _______________ that reduce fitness but nevertheless occur frequently are thought to confer _______________ to pathogens.

13./14. A trait present in _______________ of the males but none of the females in a human pedigree is likely to be controlled by an _______________ gene.

15./16. Because the _______________ for androgens and female sex hormones show distinct distributions in the brain, the different levels of sex hormones in males and females translate into different patterns of brain _______________.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

17. Hemoglobin S
a. Hemoglobin S (HbS) is a genetic variant of wild-type hemoglobin, HbA.
b. The oxygen storage capacity of HbS is superior to that of HbA.
c. The occurrence of HbS is limited to high altitudes.
d. Individuals with HbS suffer from hemophilia.

18. Human Genome Project
a. The human genome consists of about 3 billion base pairs.
b. Genetic maps of chromosomes are based on statistical frequencies of gene separation by crossing over between homologous chromosomes.
c. Physical maps of chromosomes are based on the study of chromosomal deletions, in situ hybridizations of labeled probes to chromosomes, and/or contigs (collections of overlapping cloned DNA segments).
d. Microsatellites (also known as STRPs) do not differ from one individual to another and are therefore especially useful as molecular markers on chromosomal maps.

19. Heritability of Male Homosexuality
a. The concordance ratio for male homosexuality is around 1.0.
b. Gay men are deficient in the SRY+ gene.
c. The brains of gay men have all the characteristics of female brains.
d. Maternally transmitted male homosexuality has been mapped to a region on the X-chromosome.

20. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)
a. CAH is a human genetic disorder.
b. CAH is most apparent in newborn girls.
c. The most common sign of CAH is an ambiguous morphology of the external genitalia at birth.
d. CAH is ascribed to increased estrogen production in the adrenal glands.

21-30. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Heritability of Continuously Variable Traits
A. Give a general definition and two examples of a continuously variable trait.
B. How is the heritability of a continuously variable trait defined?
C. Explain how heritability depends on the variance of the trait caused by environmental factors in the population sampled.

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Problem with Gene Therapy
A. Outline the gene therapy that has been carried out for humans with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency.
B. Imagine you are the physician supervising this therapy, and you discover that some of the genetically transformed lymphocytes donıt live nearly as long as normal lymphocytes. Based on your knowledge of the general properties of retroviruses, and on the fact that you used a retrovirus as a vector for the transgene, what do you suspect may have happened?
C. How could you test and refine the hypothesis proposed in part B? Hints: Remember that the vector virus is cloned, so that a labeled probe specifically recognizing the vector DNA is easy to prepare. Also assume that physical maps (contigs) are available for all human chromosomes.

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Anti-Müllerian Duct Hormone
A. In which cells of which organ is anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) produced?
B. What is the function of AMH in males and/or females?
C. Imagine a human family were afflicted by a mutation that inactivates the receptor for Anti-Müllerian hormone. What would be the phenotypes of homozygous mutant men and women?


Final Exam (16 December 1997)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1./2. Point mutations in molecular DNA are thought to accumulate at a steady rate and are therefore used as a nuclear clock.

3./4. The female development of mammals begins with an indifferent stage, during which the rudiments of the gonads and other reproductive organs look alike in genetically male and sexual embryos.

5./6. Physical maps of chromosomes identify the position of genes by some form of molecular measurement relative to the chromosomal ends or to length markers.

7./8. Many sex-related receptors in mammalian behavior can be explained by the fact that the differences for male and female sex hormones have different distributions in the brain.

9./10. Inclusive relatedness encompasses the focal individual's own reproductive success plus the increase (or decrease) in the reproductive success of any kin multiplied by the degree of fitness.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

11. Agriculture and animal husbandry originated about
a. 3,000 years ago
b. 10,000 years ago
c. 50,000 years ago
d. 200,000 years ago

12. Most humans prefer marriage partners who
a. were their early childhood playmates
b. look very different from themselves
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

13. Down's syndrome is caused by
a. a point mutation
b. a frame-shift mutation
c. a supernumerary chromosome
d. none of the above is correct

14. If a laboratory strain of animals is propagated strictly from the last offspring of the adults, then the median life span of the strain - according to the evolutionary theory of senescence - should
a. decrease
b. increase
c. remain constant
d. vary unpredictably

15. Worldwide human use of fresh water is mostly for
a. agriculture
b. industry
c. domestic purposes
d. none of the above is correct

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

16./17. In Australopithecines and _______________, the crests of the _______________ bones are bent around laterally, thus moving the origins of the gluteus medius and minimus from posterior to lateral.

18./19. The low position of the _______________ as found in human adults generates an extended area of crossing between the pathways for _______________ and food.

20./21 Once a mutant allele of a _______________ has been sequenced, it is only a small step to devise an inexpensive procedure for testing whether the mutant allele is actually _______________ in an individual adult or fetus.

22./23 Territoriality is a common form of _______________ that encourages ________________ of the species over a larger range.

24./25. There is a negative correlation between total________________ rate and womenıs _______________ , as measured by years of schooling.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

26. Breast Milk
a. Human breast milk contains carbohydrates, fat, and protein.
b. Milk production is maintained primarily by the release of progesterone.
c. Breast milk contains fat-soluble pesticides and other pollutants.
d. Breast milk contains antibodies directed against antigens in the infantıs environment

27. Linkage Analysis
a. If a trait is influenced by a gene, then relatives who share the trait will share the same allele of the gene more often than expected by chance.
b. Genes that are located next to each other on a chromosome are almost always inherited together.
c. Randomly selected brothers share the same allele of the SRY+ gene.
d. Pairs of gay brothers share the same allele of the Xq28 region on the X chromosome less frequently than expected by chance.

28. Marriage
a. Only a few hunter gatherer societies know the institution of marriage.
b. Gorillas live in family units.
c. The majority of human societies are polygynous.
d. The majority of human individuals live in nominally monogamous marriages.

29. Senescence
a. Senescence is defined as a decrease in the force of mortality late in life.
b. The best explanation for senescence is that a population must make room for younger generations.
c. Because of the general frailty of older people, deleterious mutations acting late in life are selected against most strongly.
d. The antagonistic pleiotropy model ascribes senescence to genetic alleles that increase fitness early in life at the price of reduced fitness later.

30. Man-Made Atmospheric Changes
a. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide increase from biomass burning.
b. Methane originates from cattle and landfills.
c. Chlorofluorocarbons result from the synthesis of fertilizers.
d. Sulfur dioxide is released during fossil fuel combustion.

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Epidemic Diseases
A. What are the general characteristics of epidemic diseases and the parasites that cause them?
B. Name two epidemic diseases of humans.
C. What has been the role of epidemic diseases during the colonization of the Americas by Europeans?
D. Discuss the hypothesis proposed by Jared Diamond to explain the unidirectional transfer of epidemic diseases during the colonizations of the Americas.

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Male or Female?
Imagine you are a field agent with the CIA and you are recruiting informants. One of your applicants seems to be a smart woman, but you have a hunch she might be a disguised male. You want to test the validity of your suspicion by asking her to take a few standardized tests in which the avarage scores of men and women differ significantly.
A. Outline two tests that you would give your applicant to do.
B. Explain how the results might help you to confirm (not prove) or drop your suspicion.

Assume your cognitive tests come up inconclusive, but fortunately, your applicant accepts a cigarette from you. Your cigarettes have special mouthpieces designed to conserve saliva cells well enough to extract useful DNA samples.
C. Name one DNA sequence that you would test for in order to decide whether your applicant is genetically male.
D. Explain why the result would prove or disprove your suspicion.

51-60. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Diagnostic Enzyme
Assume you are a scientist comparing various tumor cell lines with normal control cells. The data that you get look inconsistent, and you suspect that your technician may have mislabeled some of the culture tubes.
A. Which test for an enzyme that distinguishes most tumor cells from normal cells could you use to confirm or reject your suspicion?
B. What is the function of this enzyme in molecular terms?
C. As a rule, which cells synthesize this enzyme, and which cells donıt?
D. What is the adaptive significance of synthesizing - and of not synthyesizing - this enzyme?

61-70. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Food Production
A. How many people are currently living on Earth, and how many of them are chronically undernourished?
B. Name two principal ways of providing more food for an increasing human population.
C. Outline the past record of progress - or lack thereof - along those two ways.
D. Discuss the limitations to future progress along these two ways.

71-80. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) ³Lesbian Sea Gulls² In her article on ³Gender Benders², Janet Raloff describes so-called lesbian sea gulls, pairs of females raising their brood(s) together in DDT contaminated areas in the 1960ıs.
A. What seems to be the ultimate cause of this unusual behavior?
B. What observations were made on male sea gulls in the same areas at the same time?
C. Outline experiments done to test whether the DDT contaminations in the area were the proximate cause for the male sea gullsı problems. (If you donıt remember these experiments, design them yourself.)
D. Describe - or design - an extention of the experiments outlined in part C to test whether the male sea gullsı problems were caused by chemicals acting as estrogen mimics.


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