BIO 346 Human Biology (Plan I) (K. Kalthoff)

Exams Spring 1997

First Midterm (18 February 1997)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1/2. In humans and other mammals, up to 90% of all nuclear DNA has no known mutations, so that function will accumulate without positive or negative selection.

3/4. According to the single origin hypothesis, modern Homo sapiens originated about 200,000 years ago in Europe and migrated to Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Americas.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

5. Which of the following is NOT a general primate characteristic?
a. flat fingernails
b. great dependence on learned behavior
c. stereoscopic vision
d. valgus angle

6. Which is the first hominid known to have been habitually bipedal?
a. Homo habilis
b. Homo erectus
c. archaic Homo sapiens
d. none of the above is correct

7. The oldest bows and arrows were found with
a. Homo habilis
b. Homo erectus
c. archaic Homo sapiens
d. modern Homo sapiens

8. The extension of early growth patterns into later stages of development is known as
a. encephalization
b. lateralization
c. two-for-the-price-of-one effect
d. none of the above is correct

9. The groove separating the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe of the cerebrum is known as the
a. area of Broca
b. central sulcus
c. lateral fissure
d. precentral gyrus

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

10/11. While taxonomic systems based on ________________ data may be more reliable in reflecting the time course of evolution, taxonomic systems based on ______________ criteria are more likely to indicate the lifestyle of a species.

12/13. As compared to archaic Homo sapiens, modern Homo sapiens has a shorter and higher neurocranium, lighter _______________ ridges, and a more ________________ chin.

14/15. Classifications of fossil stone tools are based on _______________ analysis of their wear and tear marks and on the evaluations of experimental anthropologists who temporarily live _______________ and using similar tools.

16/17. Sequencers are brain areas that function in the timing and smooth execution of _______________ and _______________ movements.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

18. Evolution of Modern Homo sapiens
a. The earliest fossils of modern Homo sapiens were found in Africa.
b. Mediterranian fossil sites indicate that modern Homo sapiens lived there before archaic Homo sapiens did.
c. The first modern Homo sapiens reached America by ship from Africa.
d. Modern Homo sapiens appeared in Europe in a wave from east to west.

19. Oldowan Stone Tools
a. are associated with archaic Homo sapiens
b. are classified as core stones, hammer stones, flakes, and manuports
c. are epitomized by bifacially trimmed handaxes
d. are dated 5 mya and older

20. Brain Lateralization
a. Voluntary movements of the right body half are controlled by the left half of the motor cortex and vice versa.
b. Brain lateralization was shown by ³split brain experiments² with human patients.
c. Broca¹s area is lateralized to the left half of the cerebrum in most humans.
d. Lateralization of speech control is better established in right-handers than in others.

21-30. SHORT ESSAY (Maximum 10 points) Sexual Dimorphism of Human Pelvis

A. Describe the sexual dimorphism of the human pelvis.
B. Explain in general terms this dimorphism and the fact that birth is unusually difficult in humans.
C. Specifically, which mechanical forces, or torques, act on the hip joint during the stance phase of walking, and how do these forces differ in men and women?

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Maximum 10 points) Man the Scavenger

What is the evidence for the notion that Homo habilis and later hominids supplemented their plant-based diet with meat and other organs from scavenged animals? Discuss in particular
A. changes in climate and flora that made it difficult for hominids to survive on a strictly vegetarian diet.
B. stone tools that could have been used for scavenging.
C. cutmarks on fossil bones that shed light on the issue.
D. habits of extant animal predators and scavengers that would allow humans to scavenge.

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 points) Vervet Monkey Alarm Calls

A. Give a minimal definition of (not necessarily) spoken language.
B. Briefly describe the system of alarm calls used by vervet monkeys.
C. Discuss whether these calls qualify as a language according to the definition you gave in part A.


Second Midterm Exam (3 April 1997)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1/2. In ³ex vivo² types of patient therapy, target cells are removed from the patient, genetically transformed, and then returned to the gene.

3/4. Measurements of the diversity of a human trait by variance analysis may depend on the heritability of environmental conditions under which the trait of interest was measured.

5/6. According to the perinatal hypothesis, organizational exposure to testosterone permanently alters the brain, causing it to function in male-specific ways later in life.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

7. Human genetic diversity may have originated by
a. genetic drift (random mutations without selection)
b. natural selection
c. sexual selection
d. all of the above

8. The ultimate cause of the incest taboo is
a. asymmetry of reproductive potential between males and females
b. asymmetry of parental investment between males and females
c. avoidance of inbreeding depression
d. unconscious avoidance of childhood playmates as sex partners

9. Hemoglobin S
a. causes sickle cell anemia
b. confers resistance to malaria
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the abobe is correct

10. Epidemic diseases are characterized by
a. restriction to small communities
b. long-term illness of host
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

11. The heritability of the IQ in adults of European origin is estimated to be
a. around 0.3
b. around 0.5
c. around 0.7
d. around 0.9

12. A genetic component to male homosexuality is indicated by
a. twin studies
b. pedigree analysis
c. linkage with molecular markers on the X-chromosome
d. all of the above are correct

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

13/14. Genetic maps are based on the statistical argument that genes are more _______________ separated by crossing over if the are located further _______________ on the chromosome.

15/16. The _______________ cause of a behavior is the adaptive, or gene- propagating, function for which it has been positively _______________ in evolution.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

17. Human Skin Pigmentation
a. Dark skin confers heat tolerance.
b. Dark skin protects against skin cancer.
c. Dark-skinned people evolved only in Africa.
d. Dark skin promotes vitamin D synthesis.

18. Malaria
a. The symptoms of malaria (fever, fatigue) are caused by the larvae of a mosquito living in human blood.
b. Malaria occurs in tropical and subtropical zones.
c. Malaria is contracted only by black people.
d. The proximate cause of malaria is the formation of sickle-shaped red blood cells.

19. Gene Therapy
a. Somatic gene therapy is an attempted correction of a genetic defect in an individual and his/her descendants.
b. All approved gene therapies for humans are somatic gene therapies.
c. Most current gene therapies use viruses to carry transgenes into human cells.
d. The first successful human gene therapy was for adenosine deaminase deficiency, a condition causing severe combined immune deficiency (SCID).

20. Relatedness in Bees
The genetic relatedness (r) of a female bee is
a. 0.5 to a son or daughter
b. 0.75 to a sister
c. 0.25 to a brother
d. 0.5 to a half-sister (same mother, different fathers)

21-30. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Waist-to-Hip Ratio

A. How is the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) defined?
B. What female WHR are males on average most attracted to, and what male WHR are females on average most attracted to?
C. Summarize two observations indicating that WHR is a good predictor of male or female reproductive value.
D. Is there any difference in the way males respond to female WHR and vice versa? If yes, how do you interpret the difference?

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Alpha-Reductase Deficiency

A. What is the function of 5alpha-reductase in the metabolism of male sex-steroids?
B. How do the external genitalia of boys deficient for 5alpha-reductase look at birth?
C. Which morphological and psychosocial changes do these boys undergo at puberty?
D. Explain the changes described in part C in terms of chemical properties of the androgen receptor.

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Identifying a Disease Gene

Suppose a disease, D, runs in families.
A. How can one use data from monozygotic and dizygotic twins raised together to test whether the familial clustering of D depends, at least in part, on genetic factors - rather than diet or bad habits, which may also be passed on in families?
B. Assuming that genetic control is confirmed, and that a chromosome containing one of the D genes has already been identified, outline how one can map this D gene relative to a molecular marker, M.
C. Outline how one can use a physical map (contig) that already shows M to clone and sequence the D gene.


Final Exam (7 May 1997)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1/2. Sexual size dimorphism with large males is indicative of fighting or promiscuous mating, either of which makes male reproductive success dependent on polygynous ability.

3/4. Work of experimental archeologists indicates that bone flakes are highly effective tools for cutting animal hides and for defleshing and dismembering animal stone.

5/6. Proximate biological areas of gender differences include sex hormones, which have lasting effects on some brain causes perinatally and and affect specific brain activities in adults.

7/8. Within a chimp community, only the males are sexually related because they were born into their community, whereas the females have transfered in from other communities as they became genetically mature.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

9. The first clearly identifiable stone tools were found together with fossils of
a. Archaic Homo sapiens
b. Australopithecus afarensis
c. Homo erectus
d. Homo habilis

10. Split-brain experiments demonstrated
a. the process of encephalization
b. functional lateralization of the brain
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

11. In most cases of human gene therapy, transgenes are introduced to targets cells by
a. genetic mapping
b. microinjection
c. modified viruses
d. none of the above is correct

12. The sexually indifferent stage in human development lasts through the end of the
a. first week
b. third week
c. sixth week
d. third month

13. If a laboratory strain of animals is propagated strictly from the first offspring of any adults, the median life span of the strain - according to the evolutionary theory of senescence - should
a. decrease
b. increase
c. remain constant
d. vary unpredictably

14. During its developed stage, a society is characterized by
a. low birth rate
b. long average life span
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

15. Most of the water that humans withdraw from the hydrological cycle is used for
a. agriculture
b. industry
c. household purposes
d. none of the above is correct

16. Which of the following male reproductive problems are ascribed to chemical hormone mimicks?
a. decreased sperm count
b. testicular cancer
c. both of the above are coreect
d. none of the above is correct

17. To feed one average person a U.S. type diet, one needs cultivable land about the size of
a. 0.5 km2
b. 0.5 hectare (one-half of a soccer field)
c. 0.5 acre (large suburban housing lot)
d. 150 square yard (one-half tennis court)

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

18/19.Specific primate characteristics include reliance on ____________________ vision and a large and complex ____________________.

20/21.During bipedal walking, the pelvis is stabilized by contraction of the _______________ medius and minimus muscles during each _______________ phase.

22/23.According to the ___________________ hypothesis, perinatal exposure to ____________________ permanently alters the brain.

24/25.Because long-term population growth is very _______________ to small changes in total fertility rate, the contraceptive methods need to be nearly _______________ in order to avoid further human population growth.

26/27.The depletion of stratospheric ozone is expected to end soon as a result of international agreements to _______________ the use of _______________.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

28. Language
a. Vervet monkeys have specific alarm calls for several different predators.
b. The vocalizations of vervet monkeys show syntax and grammar.
c. Captive chimps and bonobos have learned artificial languages based on hand signs or plastic chips.
d. Captive bonobos can learn to understand simple English language.

29. Androgen Insensitivity
In XY individuals without a functional androgen receptor
a. ovaries develop.
b. Wolffian duct degenerates.
c. Müllerian duct disintegrates.
d. female secondary sex characteristics develop.

30. Senescence
a. A life table lists how many individuals of a cohort (e.g. all U.S. males born in a given year) survive during each of the subsequent years.
b. The force of mortality is defined as the number of individuals who die during a certain interval of age, divided by the number of individuals who died during the preceding interval.
c. In most animal species, the force of mortality decreases with age.
d. The average level of the force of mortality is called senescence.

31-40.SHORT ESSAY (max. 10 points) Human Characteristics

List ten characteristics that distinguish humans from all other primates.

41-50.SHORT ESSAY (max. 10 points) Larynx Position

A. What is the larynx? Outline its function in vocalization and food passage
B. Where is the larynx positioned in non-human primates, in human babies, and in human adults?
C. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the larynx positions described in part B, and how may they have affected the evolution of hominoids and other primates?

51-60.SHORT ESSAY (max. 10 points) Role of Oxidants in Senescence

A. Which oxidants are formed during the reduction of oxygen (O2) to water (H20) in human cells?
B. What classes of biomolecules are damaged by oxidants?
C. Describe an experiment showing the effect of an antioxidant, N-tert-butyl-alpha- phenylnitrone (PBN), on both biochemical and behavioral aspects of brain senescence in gerbils

61-70.SHORT ESSAY (max. 10 points) Crop Yield

According to J. Bongaarts¹ (1994) article on how a growing human population might be able to feed itself, one option is raising the crop yield.
A. How is crop yield defined?
B. Discuss two ways of boosting the crop yield, including their natural limitations and undesirable side effects.

71-80.SHORT ESSAY (max. 10 points) Estrogen Mimics.

The movie on chemical hormone mimics that was shown in class featured the work of two researchers, Richard Sharpe and Niels Skakkebaek.
A. Name and briefly characterize five reproductive problems of human males that have increased dramaticlly over the past decades.
B. What evidence (from humans and other animals) links these problems to chemical estrogen mimics?
C. Outline the unifying hypothesis proposed by Sharpe to explain all the problems listed in Part A?


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