BIO 346 Human Biology (Plan II) (K. Kalthoff)

Exams Spring 1997

First Midterm (18 February 1997)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1/2. According to the regional migration hypothesis, modern Homo sapiens evolved from archaic Homo sapiens in several geographic regions independently and without extensive continuity.

3/4. The high position of the larynx in non-human mammals allows the palate to pass up behind the soft epiglottis to lock the larynx into the nasopharynx.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

5. Humans and chimps have evolved separately for about
a. 50,000 years
b. 500,000 years
c. 5 million years
d. 50 million years

6. The upper aspect of the femoral neck
a. is stronger in chimps than in humans
b. is stronger in humans than in chimps
c. is equally strong in chimps and humans
d. has not been compared between chimps and humans

7. Which of the following tools is characteristic of Homo erectus?
a. Acheulian handaxes
b. barbed harpoon tips
c. hammer stones
d. speer throwers

8. Human breast milk contains
a. fat
b. immunoglobulins
c. protein
d. all of the above

9. In general terms, the original diet of primates is
a. strictly vegetarian
b. plant materials supplemented with insects and other small animals
c. mostly meat
d. all meat

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

10/11. The skull of Homo erectus shows a flat cranium with a cone- shaped _______________ bone and prominent _______________ ridges.

12/13. The greater width of the female pelvis generates more _______________ for the trunk weight acting on a single hip joint during the _______________ phase of walking.

14/15. The ________________ of much tropical forest with savanna some 10 mya was followed by the evolution of habitual ________________, an adaptation that allowed safer travel between remaining patches of forest.

16/17. The lack of a complex spoken language in non-human primates seems to result not so much from their inability to use a large set of _______________ but from the ________________ position of their larynx, which limits their ability to articulate their vocalizations.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

18. Homo erectus
a. Homo erectus has been found at sites dated between 1.9 and 0.3 mya.
b. Homo erectus was the first habitually bipedal hominid.
c. Homo erectus had a cranial capacity of about 1,000 cm3.
d. Homo erectus evolved in Africa and spread to Europe and East Asia.

19. Gluteus Muscles
a. The gluteus maximus originates from the pubic bone and inserts anteriorly on the femur.
b. In humans, the gluteus medius and minimus abduct the thigh or stabilize the pelvis.
c. In humans, the gluteus medius and minimus insert laterally on the greater trochanter.
d. In non-human primates, the gluteus medius and minimus insert more posteriorly on the greater trochanter.

20. Paleolithic Baseball
a. The Olduvan tool kit includes manuports, that is, unmodified stones that were carried around.
b. Sweat and leather residues on these manuports now show they were used for playing baseball.
c. Baseball playing, not throwing stones to down animals, provided the major positive selection for the evolution of sequencers.
d. The preference of mothers for carrying their babies on the left arm, formerly ascribed to the soothing effect of the maternal heartbeat, has now been traced back to the fact that hominid mothers pitched baseballs with their right hand while carrying their babies on the left.

21-30. SHORT ESSAY (Maximum 10 points) Two Taxonomic Trees for Hominoidea Based on morphological and behavioral criteria, a taxonomic tree for the following species would look as indicated
Bonobo (Bon) Gib Hum Ora Gor Chi Bon
Chimpanzee (Chi)
Gibbon (Gib)
Gorilla (Gor)
Human (Hum)
Orangutan (Ora)
A. Draw a taxonomic tree for the same set of species, but based on DNA melting curves and other molecular criteria
B. If the two trees differ, review observations that can reconcile the two trees.

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Maximum 10 points) Right-Handed Stone Tool Makers

You read a study by Nicolas Toth, in which he proposes that most Oldowan stone tool makers were already right-handed.
A. What are the data and observations on which Toth is basing his hypothesis?
B. Outline the argument that Toth makes in support of his hypothesis.

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Maximum 10 points) Encephalization

A. What is encephalization, and how is it measured?
B. Illustrate the process of encephalization in the evolution of hominids by plotting brain volume versus body weight for hominids and non-hominid primates.
C. What is paedomorphosis, and what may it have to do with encephalization?


Second Midterm Exam (3 April 1997)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1/2. Aromatase converts estrogen into testosterone, whereas 5-alpha-reductase processes testosterone into dihydrotestosterone.

3/4. The reproductive fitness of an individual encompasses the individual's own inclusive success plus any changes caused in the reproductive success of kin multiplied by the degree of relatedness.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

5. Genetic variation in skin pigmentation has evolved by natural selection to
a. avoid skin cancer
b. avoid sunburn
c. support adequate vitamin D synthesis
d. optimize all three of the above

6. The proximate cause of the incest taboo is
a. the avoidance of inbreeding depression
b. the unconscious avoidance of childhood playmates as sex partners
c. asymmetry of reproductive potential
d. asymmetry of parental investmnent

7. Stem cells
a. are undifferentiated
b. can divide asymmetrically to yield one stem cell and one committed progenitor cell
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

8. The first human gene therapy for adenosine deaminase deficiency was
a. an "assisted suicide" therapy
b. a germ line therapy
c. an "ex vivo" therapy
d. all of the above are correct

9. The SRY+ gene becomes first active in the
a. brain
b. testes
c. Wolffian duct
d. none of the above is correct

10. Performance of humans in certain cognitive tests depends on
a. hormone level during testing
b. perinatal level of testosterone
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

FILL IN THE BLANKS Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

11/12. The ratio of lower ________________ length to thigh length tends to be smaller in human populations who live in _______________ climates.

13/14. In an allele sharing study, one tests whether relatives sharing a heritable trait inherit _______________ alleles of certain molecular markers more often than expected by _______________.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each) For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

15. Germ Line
a. Germ line cells are defined as all the cells that contribute to the reproductive organs.
b. The germ line cells form an unbroken chain of cellular continuity between generations.
c. All currently approved attempts at human gene therapy affect the germ line.
d. All human germ line cells have 46 chromosomes.

16. Genetic Sex Reversal
a. Sex-reversed males usually have two X chromosomes, one of which has aquired a Y-chromosome fragment including SRY+ by meiotic crossover.
b. Sex-reversed males may also arise by the loss of SRY+ from an X chromosome.
c. Sex-reversed females usually have a Y chromosome that has lost a segment including SRY+ by meiotic crossover.
d. Sex-reversed females may also originate by a loss-of-function mutation in SRY+.

17. Wolffian Duct
a. The Wolffian duct (WD) in mammals originates as part of the embryonic kidney.
b. In the male, the WD gives rise to the penile urethra.
c. In the female, the WD forms the oviducts and the uterus.
d. The WD is also known as the Müllerian duct.

18. Lordosis in Rats
a. Normal female rats show lordosis when they are sexually receptive and mounted by a male.
b. Females cease to exhibit lordosis after removal of ovaries.
c. Injection of estrogen and progesterone causes lordosis behavior in ovariectomized females and castrated males.
d. Females exposed to testosterone prenatally do not show lordosis when injected with estrogen and progesterone.

19/20.SHORT ANSWER (2 points)

There is a human society so promiscuous that men can have no assurance of paternity. Nevertheless, men in this society sometimes do support certain children, and they are sociobiologically correct in doing so. Which children, do you think, should this be? The correct answer will fit easily on one line.

________________________________________________________ _____

21-30. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 points) Hemoglobin S

A. What is hemoglobin S (HbS)?
B. How is the geographical restriction of HbS explained? Support your answer with evidence from microscopic (laboratory type), biogeographical (which organisms live where?) and epidemiological (which diseases occur where and when) studies.
C. What general feature of human evolution does HbS illustrate?

31-40.SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 points) Heritability of Continuously Variable Traits

A. Define continuously variable traits and give two examples.
B. Define the heritability of continuously variable traits.
C. Outline how heritability of continuously variable traits can actually be estimated using data from a sample of monozygotic twins raised apart.
D. Explain how heritability estimates may be skewed by genetic and environmental factors present in the population being sampled.

41-50.SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 points) Gene for Male Homosexuality

One of your assigned readings describes a study by Dean Hamer and coworkers on genetic control of male homosexuality. Pedigree analysis of families with gay brothers has indicated the involvement of at least one X-linked gene.
A. Describe the rationale used to map the location of this gene to a specific region of the X-chromosome.
B. What kind of molecular markers were used in this study, and how were they analyzed?
C. Summarize the principal result of this study; include quantitative data if you can remember them.
D. What was the result of a control study on heterosexual brothers?


Final Exam (7 May 1997)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1/2. Sexual size dimorphism with large males is indicative of fighting or promiscuous mating, either of which makes male reproductive success dependent on polygynous ability.

3/4. According to Allen's rule, the relative temperature of exposed portions of warm- blooded animals decreases with size.

5/6. Reproductive biological causes of gender differences include the ultimate competition between men, which sets them on a path of risk-taking and status-oriented aggression.

7/8. In primitive societies with marriage kinship, sons remain within their band of origin, whereas daughters are traded out as patrilineal partners with other bands.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

9. Which of the following species does not belong to the great apes?
a. baboon
b. bonobo
c. chimpanzee
d. gorilla

10. The number of reliably used lexigrams in Kanzi's vocabulary was about
a. 30
b. 100
c. 300
d. 1,000

11. Testosterone is synthesized in
a. adrenal glands of males and females
b. interstitial cells (Leydig cells) of testis
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

12. Injection of a putative anti-oxidant into the brains of old gerbils was shown to
a. increase protein carbonyl content
b. restore short-term memory
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

13. During its developed stage, a society is characterized by
a. high birth rate
b. short average life span
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

14. Over the next decades, the worldwide average amount of cultivated land per capita is expected to
a. decrease
b. increase
c. remain the same
d. no projections have been made

15. Which of the following is NOT considered to be a greenhouse gas?
a. carbon dioxide
b. chlorofluorocarbons
c. methane
d. nitrogen

16. When estrogen receptors are "loaded" with estrogen or an estrogen mimick, they
a. bind to certain nucleotide sequences in DNA
b. regulate gene activity
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

17/18.At Laetioli in Tanzania, a trail of _______________ embossed in volcanic stone dated 3.5 mya indicates that Australopithecines were using fully ________________ locomotion.

19/20.A life table curve plots the number of individuals [ l (x) ] from a ___________________ born in a given year that are still ____________________ after x years.

21/22.While most _______________ cells inhibit the synthesis of telomerase, _______________ cells have typically escaped this inhibition.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

23. Paedomorphosis
a. Paedomprphosis is defined as a retention of fetal growth patterns during juvenile and adult stages.
b. The high forehead and large cranial vault of humans are paedomorphic traits.
c. The protruding face (prognathism) of chimpanzees is a paedomorphic trait.
d. Paedomorphosis was shown to be under genetic control in Caenorhabditis elegans.

24. Races
a. Races are subdivisions of a species that differ significantly in heritable traits.
b. The evolution of races occurs gradually as part of a speciation process.
c. Races evolve through natural selection, sexual selection, or genetic drift.
d. Race formation is prevented by geographic barriers.

25. Chemical Hormone Mimicks
a. The lesbian sea gulls on the Channel Island of Southern California have changed their sexual orientation as a result of exposure to testosterone mimicks.
b. Male alligators in Lake Apopka were feminized after a spill of pesticide.
c. Nonylphenols added to many household plastics and toiletries act as estrogen mimicks.
d. Sons born to mothers who were treated with diethylstilbestrol have higher-than-normal rates of infertility, testicular cancer, prostate cancer, testicular non-descent, and hypospadia.

26-35.SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Implements of Modern Homo sapiens

List five implements of Modern Homo sapiens, how they were made, and what they were used for. (Example: harpoon tips, carved from antler or bone with flint blades, used for fishing)

36-45.SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Inclusive Fitness of Bees

Several species of bees, wasps, and ants form colonies in which sterile female workers spend their lives foraging for, feeding, and defending the offspring of the queen. How can this behavior be reconciled with sociobiological theory, according to which each individual behaves so as to maximize its own inclusive fitness?

46-55.SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Senescence: Antagonistic Pleiotropy Hypothesis

A. How is senescence defined as a statistical phenomenon?
B. State the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis to explain senescence.
C. According to the antagonistic pleitropy hypothesis, what kind of phenotype should one expect to find in mutants where an antagonistic pleiotropy gene has lost its function?
D. Have such mutants been found? If so, in which species?

56-65.SHORT ESSAY (max. 10 points) Population Growth

The rapid growth of the human population seen in many developing countries today is part of a major process known as the demographic transition.
A. Characterize the four stages of the demographic transition.
B. When during or between these stages is the time of fastest population growth?
C. Discuss two strategies that have been proposed to shorten the period of fastest growth. (Note that contraceptive use is not a strategy to shorten the period of fastest growth but rather a way of reducing total fertility rate.)

66-75.SHORT ESSAY (max. 10 points) Water Scarcity

One of your assigned readings was Sandra Postel's (1993) book chapter on water scarcity.
A. Outline the hydrological cycle from which humans draw their water supply.
B. Which fraction of the renewable and readily accessible water supply is currently being used by humans?
C. What are the three major human uses of water (in descending order)?
D. Outline two of Postel's proposals to conserve water.


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