BIO 346 Human Biology (K. Kalthoff)

Exams Spring 1998

First Midterm Exam (19 February 1998)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1-2. There are two conflicting hypotheses about the evolution of modern Homo sapiens, known as the single continuity versus the regional origin hypothesis.

3-4. A chimp's foot is more similar to a human foot than to a human hand.

5-6. Chimps in their natural environment ³fish² for leaves and honey using twigs that they have stripped of termites and bitten to appropriate length.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

7. Which of the following hominids migrated out of Africa?
a. Homo erectus
b. Modern Homo sapiens
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

8. The Acheulian industry of stone tools is associated with
a. Homo habilis
b. Homo erectus
c. Archaic Homo sapiens
d. Modern Homo sapiens

9. Sequencers are located primarily in the
a. motor cortex
b. premotor cortex
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

10. Agriculture including animal husbandry originated about
a. 3,000 years ago
b. 10,000 years ago
c. 50,000 years ago
d. 200,000 years ago

11. The extension of early growth patterns into later stages of development is known as
a. encephalization
b. lateralization
c. paedomorphosis
d. none of the above is correct

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

12-13.Between 11 and 7 mya, a global drop in ____________________ caused the replacement of much African rain forest with open ____________________ .

14-15.Riversides must have been particularly ____________________ to early hominid ________________ because large cats often stalk their prey when they drink water.

16-17.Split brain experiments were carried out with human subjects in which the left and right cerebral _________________ had been ___________________ surgically to relieve epileptic seizures.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

18. Eugenic Movement
The eugenic movement initiated by Francis Galton (1822-1911)
a. called for human genetic improvement by governmental regulation of marriage and family size.
b. contended that individuals with high intelligence quotient (IQ) raise fewer children than individuals with low IQ.
c. encouraged inter-racial marriages.
d. linked genetic quality and social class.

19. Language of Non-Human Primates
a. Vervet monkeys have several different alarm calls, which they use being fully aware of their specific meaning.
b. Kanzi, a bonobo, was able to learn the meaning of about 150 tile symbols.
c. Kanzi also learned to understand spoken English sentences like ³Bring Panshiba an onion!².
d. After many years of training, Kanzi also spoke English at the level of a two- year-old human child.

20. Foraging with Oldowan Tools
a. Oldowan tools were sufficient for scavenging.
b. Speer throwers have been conserved along with hunting speers dated 2.5 mya.
c. Hammer stones can be used to crack large bones to acces the bone marrow.
d. Some fossil herbivore bones dated 1.8 million years ago (mya) show cut marks from both carnivore teeth and hominid stone tools.

21-30. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) The Third Chimpanzee
A. In his book The Third Chimpanzee, Diamond proposes a new taxonomic system of the Hominoidea (apes), in which the common chimpanzee, the pygmy chimpanzee (bonobo), and a third chimpanzee are all placed in one genus. Who is the third chimpanzee?
B. On what kind of data is the new taxonomic system advocated by Diamond based? (Include in your answer the concept of a ³molecular clock², but describe it only in outline.)
C. In the traditional taxonomic system of the Hominoidea (apes), the chimps, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans are placed in one family, the Pongidae, and Diamondıs ³third chimp² is placed in a family all by itself. What kind of data is this traditional taxonomic system based on?
D. How can we interpret the fact that two types of data, each of them correct and informative, have yielded two different taxonomic systems for the Hominoidea?

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Habitual Bipedalism
A. Briefly outline five pieces of evidence indicating that Australopithecines were habitually bipedal but retained proficiency in climbing trees.
B. What do we know about the ecological conditions of Australopithecines that make their form of bipedalism seem adaptive?

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Breathing and Drinking
A. Explain the anatomical structures that allow mammals and human babies, but not human adults, to breathe and drink at the same time.
B. What happens in human development that causes the loss of the capability described in part A? What is the potential problem resulting from this development?
C. Explain why the development described in part B, despite its attendant problems, may have been positively selected for.


Second Midterm Exam (2 April 1998)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1./2. Races are generally defined as species within populations that differ significantly in heritable traits.

3./4. Genetic gene therapy is an attempted correction of a somatic defect in somatic cells with no direct benefit to the patient's germ line.

5./6. The inclusive tenet of behavioral ecologists is that each individual behaves in such a way as to maximize his/her basic fitness.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

7. The proximate cause of the incest taboo is
a. the avoidance of inbreeding depression
b. the unconscious avoidance of childhood playmates as sex partners
c. asymmetry of reproductive potential
d. asymmetry of parental investmnent

8. Hemoglobin S
a. causes sickle cell anemia in homozygotes
b. confers resistance to malaria
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

9. Stem cells
a. are undifferentiated
b. can divide asymmetrically to yield one stem cell and one committed progenitor cell
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

10. The heritability of a continuously variable human trait can be assessed by
a. concordance in pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins
b. variance analysis
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

11./12. _______________ selection is for heritable traits promoting survival in a given environment, whereas _______________ selection is for heritable traits appealing to potential mates.

13./14. Genetic maps are based on the statistical argument that genes are more _______________ separated by crossing over if the are located further _______________ on the chromosome.

15./16. In an allele sharing study, one tests whether relatives sharing a heritable trait inherit _______________ copies of a chromosomal region more often than expected by _______________.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

17. Physical Chromosome Maps (PCMs)
a. PCMs identify the position of genes in terms of some length measurement relative to the chromosome ends or to molecular markers.
b. Older PCMs were based on chromosomal rearrangements and in situ hybridizations.
c. In a modern sense, PCMs are contigs, that is, collections of overlapping segments of cloned DNA.
d. PCMs usually differ from one cell type to another.

18. Germ Line
a. The germ line is defined as the lineage of cells that eventually produce egg or sperm.
b. The germ line cells form an unbroken chain of cellular continuity between generations.
c. All currently approved attempts at human gene therapy affect the germ line.
d. Human germ line cells may have 23 or 46 chromosomes.

19. Odd Trait
In this modified pick-the-odd statement question, three of the listed human traits are controlled by several genes and one of the listed traits is controlled by a single gene, or vice versa. Circle the one odd trait.
a. height
b. weight
c. intelligence
d. A/B/O blood group

20. Relatedness among Humans
The genetic relatedness of a man to his
a. mother is 0.5
b. dizygotic twin brother is 0.75
c. maternal uncle is 0.25
d. first cousin is usually 0.125

21-30. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Epidemic Diseases
A. What are the characteristics of an epidemic disease?
B. Which human living conditions can sustain epidemics, and why?
C. When Europeans invaded the Americas, an estimated 95% of the native American population was wiped out by European epidemics. In contrast, the European invaders were not killed by germs to which the native Americans were immune. In a journal article by Diamond (1992) that you had as an assigned reading, the author proposes a hypothesis on why the killing by germs was unidirectional. Outline this hypothesis.

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) 5a-Reductase
In another assigned reading, Imperato-McGinley and coworkers have described a kinship in the Dominicam Republic with pseudohermaphroditism caused by 5a-reductase defiviency.
A. What is the function of 5a-reductase in male sex steroid metabolism?
B. How do the external genitalia of males 5a-reductase deficiency look at birth?
C. Is the testosterone level of these males normal, above normal, or below normal?
D. What morphological and psychosocial changes do these males undergo at puberty, and what causes these changes?
E. Interpret the observations you described in parts C and D in terms of the organizational hypothesis on hormone dependence of brain development.

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Sex-Specific Differences in Tests.
In yet another one of your assigned readings, Kimura (1992) describes differences between men and women in the ways they score on certain standardized tests.
A. Briefly chracterize two tests that men tend do better on and two tests on which men tend to outperform women.
B. Pick one of the tests you described in part A, and graph the test results. Label the X and Y axes.
C. Using your graph, define effect size (d) and variance ratio (VR).
D. Indicate the range of effect sizes and variance ratios observed in the tests desribed by Kimura.


Final Exam (14 May 1998)

EXCHANGE WORDS (Maximum 2 points each)

The following statements are erroneous. However, each one can be corrected by exchanging (swapping) two single words. Circle these two words within each statement. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

1./2. In a double-blind experiment, the investigator who measures or conceals specimens receives them encoded in a way that scores to him the specimensı identity, and from a helper who does not know the code either.

3./4. Male size dimorphism, with males being larger than females, is generally correlated with sexual competition over females.

5./6. Worldwide, the average person today depends on cultivated land half the size of a soccer field, which is about the modern size of land from which the current American diet for one person can be extracted with minimal agricultural techniques.

7./8. So-called agricultural zones in coastal waters are ascribed to oxygen depletion caused by bacterial breakdown of excess amounts of algae that grow at the mouths of rivers carrying runoff from dead areas where fertilizer is used in large amounts.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)

In the following questions or statements, circle the letter associated with the one answer or version of the statement that you consider to be the correct one.

9. According to DNA hybridization studies, how much genetic information do humans and chimpanzees share?
a. 57%
b. 75%
c. 89%
d. 98%

10. Based on fossil evidence, which of the following hominids were the first to be habitually bipedal
a. Australopithecines
b. Homo erectus
c. Homo habilis
d. Neanderthals

11. 5/98 In a walking human, the gluteus medius muscle on the left side contracts
a. during the stance phase of the left leg
b. during the swing phase of the right leg
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

12. Which of the following stone tool industries is the oldest?
a. Acheulian
b. Levallois
c. Mousterian
d. Oldovan

13. Human genetic diversity is may have originated by
a. genetic drift (random mutations without selection)
b. natural selection
c. sexual selection
d. all of the above

14. Two simple (Mendelian) traits that segregate from each other in genetic crosses in 30% of all offspring are encoded by genes that are
a. identical
b. located closely together on the same chromosome
c. located apart but on the same chromosome
d. located on different chromosomes

15. Which of the following is NOT necessarily a property of stem cells.
a. asymmetric division
b. restriction to germ line
c. undifferentiated state
d. unlimited self-renewal

16. The sexually indifferent stage in human development lasts
a. six hours
b. six days
c. six weeks
d. six months

17. 5/98 The development of testes versus ovaries in mammals is controlled by
a. the level of sex hormones in the embryo
b. the activity of the SRY gene in the gonad
c. the motherıs waist-to-hip ratio
d. none of the above is correct

18. The genetic relatedness of a female bee to her brother is
a. 0.125
b. 0.25
c. 0.5
d. 0.75

19. Oxidants damage
a. DNA
b. Protein
c. both of the above are correct
d. none of the above is correct

20. The cave paintings in Altamira (Spain) and Lascaux (France) are dated approximately
a. 5 thousand years ago (kya)
b. 15 kya
c. 50 kya
d. 150 kya

FILL IN THE BLANKS

Complete each of the following sentences by inserting one word into each blank space so that a scientifically and linguistically correct statement results. A hyphenated word counts as one word.

21/22 The globin allele that causes sickle cell anemia in homozygotes is thought to have persisted in hot and moist regions because it confers immunity against _______________ to heterozygotes.

23/24 The primitive division of labor - men scavenge or hunt while women ________________ and take care of children - maximizes the ________________ potential of a group.

25/26 Mutations reducing fitness late in life will be _______________ against only weakly because most members of a natural population have already _______________ from random accidents before the mutations are expressed phenotypically.

27/28 The depletion of stratospheric ozone is expected to end soon as a result of international agreements to _______________ the use of _______________.

PICK THE ODD STATEMENT (1 point each)

For the following questions, either three of the statements - or partial statements - are correct and one is false, or three are false and one is correct. Pick out the one odd statement, be it correct or false, and circle the respective letter.

29. Neanderthals
a. buried their dead
b. created many well-known cave paintings
c. had a greater average cranial capacity than moder Homo sapiens
d. used fire regularly

30. Hydrological Cycle
a. The hydrological cycle is driven by solar power and gravity.
b. Because of its cyclic nature, the hydrological cycle provides an unlimited supply of fresh water.
c. Most of the total runoff is lost as uncaptured flood water or flow in remote areas.
d. Worldwide, the accessible runoff for humans is about 12,500 km3 water per year.

31-40. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Man the Scavenger
Evidence indicates that Homo habilis and later hominids supplemented their plant- based diet with meat and other organs from scavenged animals. Discuss in particular
A. changes in climate and flora that made it difficult for early hominids to survive on a strictly vegetarian diet,
B. stone tools that could have been used for scavenging, and
C. why river banks must have been advantagous locations for early hominid scavengers.
D. Extra credit (max. 4 points): Describe cutmarks on fossil bones that provide critical evidence for hominid scavenging.

41-50. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Sequencers
A. Outline the concept of sequencers in the human brain.
B. Which kinds of human activities require sequencers?
C. Where in the human brain are sequencers located, and why does this location make functional sense?
D. Sequencers tend to be lateralized. Speculate on an (ultimate) cause why this may be so.
E. Extra credit (max. 4 points): Outline an experiment recording the activity of individual neurons in monkeys that demonstrates sequencer function.

51-60. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Infanticide
A. Under which circumstances is infanticide common among mammals?
B. What advantages do the perpetrators reap from this behavior?
C. Name a primitive human society in which infanticide is practiced under equivalent circumstances.
D. In civilized human societies, how does the risk of a human child to be killed by a step- parent compared to the risk of being killed by a biological parent?
E. Experiments in which human probands were shown photographs of a child and a line-up of adults including a biological parent of the child, the probands were generally unable to pick the parent, except that fathers of one-year-olds were generally recognized. How could this result be related to the data described in part D?

61-70. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Fertility Transition
The rapid growth of the human population seen in many developing countries today is part of a process known as the demographic transition.
A. Characterize the four stages of the demographic transition in terms of birth rate, death rate, average life span, and population size.
B. Which of these four stages is the most critical one to curbing human population growth?
C. Since the critical step asked for in part B has often occured during the industrialization of a country, some sociologists have recommended industrialization as the best contraceptive. What is the problem with this recommendation?

71-80. SHORT ESSAY (Max. 10 pts.) Apopka Alligators
Alligators of Floridaıs Lake Apopka figured prominently in the movie you saw and in one of your assigned readings by Raloff (1994).
A. Which reproductive abnormalities did scientists find in alligator eggs and juveniles?
B. How were these abnormalities correlated with exposure to insecticides?
C. Describe an experiment that established a causal relationship between exposure of eggs to the insecticides and the reproductive abnormalities.
D. Outline briefly a hormonal control mechanism, which has been proposed to explain the effects of environmental estrogens on human males, that could also have caused the alligatorsı reproductive problems.


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