Analysis of Biological Development (K. Kalthoff)

Detailed Table of Contents



Chapter 1 /Analysis of Development

1.1 The Principle of Epigenesis

1.2 Developmental Periods and Stages in the Life Cycle

Embryonic Development Begins with Fertilization and Ends with the Completion of Histogenesis

Postembryonic Development Can Be Direct or Indirect

Adulthood Begins with the Onset of Reproduction and Ends with Death

1.3 Classical Analytical Strategies in Developmental Biology

Embryonic Cells Have Predictable Fates in Development

Analysis of Development Requires a Strategy of Controlled Interference

Isolation, Removal and Transplantation of Embryonic Parts Are Key Strategies of Embryologists

1.4 Genetic Analysis of Development

1.5 Reductionist and Synthetic Analyses of Development


Chapter 2 / The Role of Cells in Development

2.1 The Principle of Cellular Continuity

2.2 The Cell and Its Organelles

2.3 Cell Shape and the Cytoskeleton

Cells Change Their External Shape As Well As Their Internal Order

Microtubules Maintain Cell Shape and Mediate Intracellular Transport

Microfilaments Generate Contracting Forces and Stabilize the Cell Surface

Intermediate Filaments Vary Among Different Cell Types

2.4 The Cell Cycle and Its Control

Chromosomes Are Duplicated During S Phase

Chromosome Duplicates Are Split between Daughter Cells During Mitosis

The Cell Cytoplasm Is Divided During Cytokinesis

The Cyclic Activity of a Protein Complex Controls the Cell Cycle

2.5 Cell Membranes

2.6 Cellular Movement

2.7 Cell Junctions in Epithelia and Mesenchyme

2.8 Cellular Signaling

Intercellular Signals Vary with Respect to Distance, Speed of Action, and Complexity

Membrane Receptors Initiate Different Signaling Pathways

Adenylate Cyclase Generates cAMP as a Second Messenger

Phospholipase C- Generates Diacylglycerol, Inositol Trisphosphate, and Calcium Ions as Second Messengers

The RTK-Ras-ERK Pathway Activates Transcription Factors

Signal Transduction Pathways Are Linked with One Another and With Cell Adhesion


Chapter 3 / Gametogenesis

3.1 The Discovery of the Mammalian Egg

3.2 The Germ Line Concept and the Dual Origin of Gonads

3.3 Meiosis

Homologous Chromosomes Are Separated during Meiosis

The Timing of Meiosis Differs between Males and Females

Meiosis Promotes Genetic Variation, Helps to Establish Homozygous Mutant Alleles, and Eliminates Bad Genes

3.4 Spermatogenesis

Male Germ Cells Develop in Seminiferous Tubules


Spermatogonia Behave as Stem Cells

3.5 Oogenesis

Oocytes Are Supplied with Large Amounts of RNA

Yolk Proteins for Oocytes Are Synthesized in the Liver or Fat Body

The Ovarian Autonomy Imposes Polarity on the Oocyte

Maturation Processes Prepare the Oocyte for Ovulation and Fertilization

Eggs Are Protected by Different Types of Envelopes

*Method 3.1 Autoradiography


Chapter 4 / Fertilization

4.1 Interactions Before Sperm-Egg Adhesion

Many Sperm Are Attracted to Eggs by Chemical Signals

Some Sperm Must Undergo Capacitation Before They Can Fertilize Eggs

4.2 Fertilization in Sea Urchins

Sea Urchin Sperm Undergo the Acrosome Reaction Before They Adhere to the Vitelline Envelope

Sea Urchin Sperm Adhere to Eggs with an Acrosomal Protein Called Bindin

Gamete Fusion Leads to the Formation of a Fertilization Cone

4.3 Fertilization in Mammals

Mouse Sperm Undergo the Acrosome Reaction After They Adhere to the Sona Pellucida

A Bioassay Is a Powerful Strategy to Reveal a Biologically Active Component

Mouse Sperm Adhere to a Specific Zona Pellucida Protein

Antibodies to Sperm-Egg Adhesion Proteins Can Act as Contraceptives

4.4 Egg Activation

Egg Activation May Be Triggered by Different Signaling Mechanisms

A Temporary Rise in Ca2+ Concentration is Followed by Activation of Protein Kinase C

Activation Accelerates The Egg's Metabolism in Preparation for Cleavage

4.5 Blocks to Polyspermy

The Fertilization Potential Serves as a Fast Block to Polyspermy

The Cortical Reaction Causes a Slow Block to Polyspermy

4.6 The Principle of Synergistic Mechanisms

4.7 Parthenogenesis

*Method 4.3 Immunostaining


Chapter 5 / Cleavage

5.1 Yolk Distribution and Cleavage Pattern

5.2 Cleavage Patterns of Representative Animals

Sea Urchins Have Isolecithal Eggs and Undergo Holoblastic Cleavage

Amphibians Have Mesolecithal Eggs but Still Cleave Holoblastically

Snails Have Isolecithal Eggs and Follow a Spiral Cleavage Pattern

The Ascidian Cleavage Pattern Is Bilaterally Symmetrical

Mammalian Eggs Show Rotational Cleavage

Eggs With Variable Cleavage Show Regulative Development

Birds, Reptiles, and Many Fishes Have Telolecithal Eggs and Undergo Discoidal Cleavage

Insects Have Centrolecithal Eggs and Undergo Superficial Cleavage

5.3 Spatial Control of Cleavage: Positioning and Orientation of Mitotic Spindles

Actin and Myosin Form the Contractile Ring in Cytokinesis

The Mitotic Spindle Axis Determines the Orientation of the Cleavage Plane

Mechanical Constraints May Orient Mitotic Spindles

Centrosomes Organize Mitotic Spindles in Regular Ways During Cleavage

Specific Sites in the Egg Cortex Attract and Anchor Centrosomes

Maternal Gene Products May Orient Mitotic Spindles

5.4 The Timing of Cleavage Divisions

The Cell Cycle Slows Down during the Midblastula Transition (MBT)

Stage- and Region- Specific Gene Activities Modulate the Basic Cell Cycle After MBT

The Nucleocytoplasmic Ratio May Trigger MBT According to a Titration Model


Chapter 6 / Cell Fate, Potency, and Determination

6.1 Fate Mapping

6.2 Conal Analysis

6.3 Potency of Embryonic Cells

6.4 Determination of Embryonic Cells

Cell Determination Is Discovered Through Operational Criteria

Drosophila Blastoderm Cells Are Determined to Form Structures within a Single Segment

Drosophila Cells Are Born with a Bias that is Honed by Subsequent Interactions

Prospective Neural Plate Cells of Amphibians Are Determined During Gastrulation

Mouse Embryonic Cells Are Not Determined Until the Blastocyst Stage

6.5 Properties of the Determined State

Determination Is a Stepwise Process of Instruction and Commitment

Cell Determination Occurs as Part of Embryonic Pattern Formation

The Determined State Is (Almost) Stably Passed On during Mitosis

6.6 Regulation in Development

*Method 6.1 Labeling Cells by Somatic Crossover


Chapter 7 / Genomic Equivalence and the Cyptoplasmic Environment

7.1 Theories of Cell Differentiation

7.2 Observation on Cells

Cells May Carry Out Different Functions at Different Times

Cells Change Their Differentiated State During Regeneration

7.3 Observations on Chromosomes

Different Cells from the Same Individual Show the Same Set of Chromosomes

Polytene Chromosomes Show the Same Banding Pattern in Different Tissues

Chromosome Elimination Is Associated with the Dichotomy between Germ Line and Somatic Cells

7.4 Molecular Data on Genomic Equivalence

7.5 Totipotency of Differentiated Plant Cells

7.6 Totipotency of Nuclei from Embryonic Animal Cells

Newt Blastomeres Develop Normally after Delayed Nucleation

Nuclei from Embryonic Cells Are Still Totipotent

7.7 Pluripotency of Nuclei from Differentiated Animal Cells

Nuclei from Older Donor Cells Show a Decreasing Ability to Promote the Development of a New Organism

Nuclei from Mature Cells Are Unprepared for the Fast Mitotic Cycles of Early Frog Embryos

Some Differentiated Cells Contain Highly Pluripotent Nuclei

Mammals Can Be Cloned by Fusing Fetal or Adults Cells with Enucleated Eggs

Nuclear Transfer Experiments with Mammals Have Important Applications in Science, Agriculture, and Medicine

Will Humans be Cloned in the Future?

7.8 Control of Nuclear Activities by the Cytoplasmic Environment

Gene Expression Changes upon Transplantation of Nuclei to New Cytoplasmic Environments

Cell Fusion Exposes Nuclei to New Cytoplasmic Signals


Chapter 8 / Localized Cytoplasmic Determinants

8.1 The Principle of Cytoplasmic Localization

8.2 Polar Lobe Formation as a Means of Cytoplasmic Localization

8.3 Germ Cell Determinants in Insects Eggs

Rescue Experiments Can Restore Defective Embryos to Normal Development

Heterotopic Transplantation Tests Cytoplasmic Determinants for Activity in Abnormal Locations

Localization of Polar Granules Requires RNA Transport Along Microtubules

8.4 Bicoid mRNA in Drosophila Eggs

8.5 Myoplasm in Ascidian Eggs

Cytoplasmic Components of Ascidian Eggs Are Segregated Upon Fertilization

Myoplasm is Necessary and Sufficient for Tail Muscle Formation

Myoplasm Segregation Involves a Plasma Membrane Lamina

Myoplasm is Associated with Localized Maternal RNAs

8.6 Cytoplasmic Localization at Advanced Embryonic Stages

8.7 Bioassays for Localized Cytoplasmic Determinants

8.8 The Principle of Default Programs

8.9 Properties of Localized Cytoplasmic Determinants

Cytoplasmic Determinants Control Certain Cell Lineages or Entire Body Regions

Localized Cytoplasmic Determinants May Be Activating or Inhibitory

Cytoplasmic Localization May or May Not Be Associated with Visible Markers

Most Localized Cytoplasmic Determinants Are Maternal mRNAs

Cytoplasmic Organization Occurs at Different Stages of Development Using Various Cellular Mechanisms

* Method 8.1 In Situ Hybridization


Chapter 9 / Axis Formation and Mesoderm Induction

9.1 Body Axes and Planes

9.2 Generation of Rhizoid-Thallus Axis in Fucus

9.3 Determination of the Animal-Vegetal Axis in Amphibians

The Animal-Vegetal Axis Originates by Oriented Transport during Oogenesis

The Animal-Vegetal Polarity Determines the Spatial Order of the Germ Layers

Vegetal Blastomeres Induce Their Animal Neighbors to Form Mesoderm

9.4 The Principle of Induction

9.5 Determination of the Dorsoventral Axis in Amphibians

Deep Cytoplasm Undergoes Regular Movements during Egg Activation

Cytoplasmic Rearrangements Following Fertilization Involve Cortical Rotation

Microtubules Move Cytoplasmic Components Dorsally Beyond Cortical Displacement

A Dorsalizing Activity Moves from the Vegetal Pole to the Dorsal Side During Cortical Rotation

Dorsal Vegetal and Equatorial Blastomeres Rescue Ventralized Embryos

9.6 Effect of Dorsoventral Polarity on Mesoderm Induction in Xenopus

Mesoderm is Induced with a Rudimentary Dorsoventral Pattern

Dorsal Marginal Cells Induce an Array of Mesodermal Organ Rudiments

9.7 Molecular Mechanisms of Dorsoventral Axis Formation and Mesoderm Induction

-Catenin May Specify Dorsoventral Polartiy

Several Growth Factors Have Mesoderm-Inducing Activity

TGF- Members and B-Catenin May Act Synergistically in Inducing Spemann's Organizer

9.8 Determination of Left-Right Asymmetry


Chapter 10 / Gastrulation

10.1 The Analysis of Morphogenesis

Morphogenesis Involves Typical Epithelial Movements

Morphogenesis Is Based on a Small Repertoire of Cell Activities

10.2 Gastrulation in Sea Urchins

10.3 Gastrulation in Amphibians

Different Gastrula Areas Show Distinct Cellular Behaviors

Bottle Cells Generate the Initial Depression of the Blastopore

Deep Marginal Zone Cells Are Necessary for Involution

Deep Zone Cells and Involuting Marginal Zone Cells Migrate on the Inside of the Blastocoel Roof

Convergent Extension Is Especially Strong in the Dorsal Marginal Zone

Animal Cap and Noninvoluting Marginal Zone Undergo Epiboly

How Are Patterns of Cell Behavior Related to Gene Expression?

10.4 Gastrulation in Fishes and Birds

Zebrafish Embryos Develop from Two Cell Layers Mostly by Convergent Extension

Chicken Embryos Develop From One Cell Layer Mostly by Ingression

10.5 Gastrulation in Humans


Chapter 11 / Cell Adhesion and Morphogenesis

11.1 Cell Aggregation Studies in Vitro

Cells from Different Tissues Adhere to One Another Selectively

Tissues Form Hierarchies of Adhesiveness

11.2 Cell Adhesion Molecules

Immunoglobulinlike CAMs May Allow or Hinder Cell Adhesion

Cadherins Mediate CA2+ – Dependent Cell Adhesion

Lectins Bind Heterotupically to Sugar Residues

11.3 ECM Molecules and Their Cellular Receptors

Glycosaminopglycans and Proteoglycans Form and Amorphous, Hydrophilic Ground Substance

Fibrous Glycoproteins Make Up the Dynamic Meshwork of the ECM

Integrins Mediate Cell Adhesion to ECM Molecules

11.4 The Role of Cell and Substrate Adhesion Molecules in Morphogenesis

CAM Expression is Correlated with Cell Fates

Cell Adhesiveness Changes during Sea Urchin Gastrulation

CAMs Facilitate the Formation of Cell Junctions

Fibrous ECM Components Provide Contact Guidance to Cells

Amphibian Gastrulation Requires Fibronectin on the Inner Surface of the Blastocoel Roof

11.5 Morphoregulatory Roles of Cell and Substrate Adhesion Molecules

CAM and SAM Genes Are Controlled by Selector Genes

Cell-Cell Adhesion and Cell-Substratum Interactions Affect Gene Activity

* Methods 11.1 Isolating Cell Adhesion Molecules and Their Genes with Antibodies


Chapter 12 / Neurulation and Axis Induction

12.1 Neurulation as an Example of Organogenesis

Neurulation Is of Scientific and Medical Interest

Neurulation in Amphibians Occurs in Two Phases

Neural Tubes of Bird Embryos Have Hinges

In Humans, Neural Tube Closure Begins in the Neck Region

In Fish, the Neural Tube Originates as a Solid Rod

12.2 Mechanisms of Neurulation in Amphibians

Neurulation Depends on Tissues Adjacent to the Neural Plate

Neural Plate Cells Undergo Columnization

Intercalation of Nerual Plate Cells Causes Convergent Extension

Both Columnarization and Cell Intercalation Contribute to Generating the Keyhole Shape

Neural Tube Closure Is Associated with Apical Constriction, Rapid Anteroposterior Extension, and Cell Crawling

12.3 The Role of Induction in Axis Formation

The Dorsal Blastopore Lip Organizes the Formation of an Entire Embryo

Does the Organizer Have Structure?

Axis Induction Shows Regional Specificity

12.4 Mechanisms of Neural Induction

There Are Two Signaling Pathways—Planar and Vertical—for Neural Induction

Planar Induction Plays a Major Role in Xenopus Embryos

Neural Induction is a Multistep Process

12.5 Axis Induction by Disinhibition

Dorsal Development Occurs as a Default Program in Xenopus

Spemann's Organizer Inactivates a Ventralizing Signal

Basic Questions are Still Unresolved


Chapter 13 / Ectodermal Organs

13.1 Neural Tube

Nervous Tissue Consists of Neurons and Glial Cells

The Spinal Cord Is Patterned by Signal from Adjacent Tissues

The Basic Organization of the Spinal Cord Is Modified in the Brain

The Peripheral Nervous System is of Diverse Origin

13.2 Neural Crest

NC Cells Arise at the Boundary Between Neural Plate and Epidermis

NC Cells Have Different Migration Routes and a Wide Range of Fates

The Strategy of Clonal Analysis Shows that NC Cells Are a Heterogeneous Population of Pluripotent Cells

The Strategies of Heterotopic and Heterochronic Transplantation Reveal Spatial and Temporal Restrictions to NC Cell Migration

Extracellular Matrix Affects the Determination of NC Cells

Region-Specific Growth Factors Are Involved in NC Cell Determination

13.3 Ectodermal Placodes

The Otic Placode Forms the Inner Ear

The Lens Placode Develops Together with the Retina

Nasal Placodes Form Olfactory Sensory Epithelia

13.4 Epidermis


Chapter 14 / Endodermal and Mesodermal Organs

14.1 Endodermal Derivatives

The Embryonic Pharynx Contains a Series of Arches

Embryos Pass through a Phylotypic Stage after Organogenesis

The Endoderm Lines the Inside of the Intestine and Its Appendages

14.2 Axial and Paraxial Mesoderm

Axial Mesoderm Forms the Prechordal Plate and the Notochord

Paraxial Mesoderm Forms the Presomitic Plates and Somites

Somites Are Patterned by Signal from Surrounding Organ Rudiments

14.3 Connective Tissue and Skeletal Muscle

Connective Tissue Contains Large Amounts of Extracellular Matrix

Skeletal Muscle Fibers Arise Through Cell Fusion

14.4 Intermediate Mesoderm

14.5 The Principle of Reciprocal Interaction

14.6 Lateral Plates

The Lateral Plates Surround the Coelomic Cavities

The Cardiovascular System Develops from Various Mesodermal Precursors

Cardiovascular System Development Recapitulates the Phylotopic Stage

Smooth Muscle Consists of Single Cells

14.7 Extraembryonic Membranes

The Amnion and Chorion Are Formed by Layers of Ectoderm and Mesoderm

The Yolk Sac and Allantois Are Formed by Layers of Endoderm and Mesoderm

The Mammalian Placenta Is Formed from the Embryonic Trophoblast and the Uterine Endometrium

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Last modified: 28 November 2000