Analysis of Biological Development (K. Kalthoff)

Detailed Table of Contents



Chapter 15 / The Use of Mutants and Transgenic Organisms in the Analysis of Development

15.1 The Historical Separation of Genetics from Developmental Biology

15.2 Modern Genetic Analysis of Development

Mutants Reveal the Hidden “Logic” of Embryonic Development

Drosophila Mutants Allow the Analysis of a Complex Body Pattern

Caenorhabditis elegans Mutants Uncover Gene Activities Controlling the Cell Lineages

Genetic Analysis of the Mouse Mus musculus Uses Embryonic Stem Cells

The Zebra Fish Danio rerio is Genetically Tractable and Suitable for Cell Transplantation

Genetic Analysis Reveals Similarity of Plant and Animal Development

15.3 DNA Cloning and Sequencing

DNA Can Be Replicated, Transcribed, and Reverse-Transcribed In Vitro

Nucleic Acid Hybridization Allows the Detection of Specific Nucleotide Sequences

DNA Can Be Cut and Spliced Enzymatically

DNA Sequencing May Reveal the Biochemical Activity of a Gene Product

15.4 Transfection and Genetic Transformation of Cells

15.5 The Strategies of Gene Overexpression, Dominant Interference and Gene Knockout.

15.6 Germ Line Transformation

The Genetic Transformation of Drosophila Utilizes Transposable DNA Elements

Mammals Can Be Transformed by Injecting Transgenes Directly into an Egg Pronucleus

Transgenic Mice Can Be Raised from Transformed Embryonic Stem Cells

DNA Insertion Can Be Used for Mutagenesis and Promoter Trapping

Transgenic Organisms Have Many Uses in Basic and Applied Science

* Methods 15.1 The Generation and Maintenance of Mutants

* Methods 15.2 Saturation Mutagenesis Screens

* Methods 15.3 Polymerase Chain Reaction

* Methods 15.4 Northern Blotting and Southern Blotting

* Methods 15.5 Recombinant DNA Techniques


Chapter 16 / Transcriptional Control

16.1 The Principle of Differential Gene Expression

16.2 Evidence for Transcriptional Control

16.3 DNA Sequences Controlling Transcription

Regulatory DNA Sequences Are Studied with Fusion Genes

Promoters and Enhancers Are Regulatory DNA Regions with Different Properties

16.4 Transcription Factors and Their Role in Development

General Transcription Factors Bind to All Promoters

Transcriptional Activators and Repressors Associate with Restricted Sets of Genes and Occur Only in Certain Cells

Transcriptional Activators Have Highly Conserved DNA Binding Domains

The bicoid Protein Acts as a Transcriptional Activator on the hunchback+ Gene in the Drosophila Embryo

The Activity of Transcription Factors Themselves May Be Regulated

16.5 Chromatin Structure and Transcription

Heterchromatic Chromosome Regions Are Not Transcribed

Puffs in Polytene Chromosome Are Actively Transcribed

DNA in Transcribed Chromatin Is Sensitive to DNase I Digestion

Transcriptional Control Depends on Histone Acetylation and Deacetylation

16.6 Transcriptional Control and Cell Determination

Combinatorial Action of Transcription Factors Explains the Stepwise Process of Cell Determination

Cell Determination May Be Based on Bistable Control Circuit of Switch Genes

Drosophila Homeotic Genes Show Switch Gene Characteristics

DNA Methylation Maintains Patterns of Gene Expression


Chapter 17 / RNA Processing

17.1 Posttranscriptional Modifications of Pre-Messenger RNA

17.2 Control of Development by Alternative Splicing

A Cascade of Alternative Splicing Steps Controls Sex Development in Drosophila

Alternative Splicing of Calcitonin and Neuropeptide mRNA Is Regulated by Blockage of the Calcitonin-Specific Splice Acceptor Site

17.3 Messenger RNP Transport from Nucleus to Cytoplasm

Nuclear Pore Complexes Are Controlled Gates for the Transport of RNPs to the Cytoplasm

Experiments with Cloned cDNAs Indicate Differential mRNP Retention

17.4 Messenger RNA Degradation

The Half-Life of Messenger RNAs in Cells Is Regulated Selectively

The Degradation of mRNAs in Cells Is Controlled by Proteins Binding to Specific RNA Motifs

* Method 17.1 Ribonuclease Protection Assay

* Method 17.2 Pulse Labeling of Molecules and Their Half-life in Cells


Chapter 18 / Translational Control and Postranslational Modifications

18.1 Formation of Polysomes and Nontranslated mRNP Particles

Most mRNAs Are Immediately Recruited into Polysomes and Translated

Some mRNAs Are Stored as Nontranslated mRNP Particles

18.2 Mechanisms of Translational Control

Calcium Ions and pH May Regulate the Overall Rate of Protein Synthesis at Fertilization

Phosphorylation of Initiation Factors and Associated Proteins Controls Translation

Regulatory Proteins or RNAs “Mask” Critical Sequences of Specific mRNAs

Polyadenylation and Deadenylation Control the Translation of Specific mRNAs

18.3 Translational Control in Oocytes, Eggs, and Embryos

Early Embryos Use mRNA Synthesized During Oogenesis

Specific mRNAs Shift from Subribosomal mRNP Particles to Polysomes during Oocyte Maturation

Translation of Some mRNAs Depends on Their Cytoplasmic Localization

18.4 Translational Control during Spermiogenesis

Protamine mRNA Is Stored in Subribosomal RNP Particles before Translation

Messenger RNA May Be Earmarked for Storage by Its 5' UTR or 3' URT Sequence

18.5 Posttranslational Polypeptide Modifications

Polypeptides Are Directed to Different Cellular Destinations

Polypeptides May Undergo Several Posttranslational Modifications

Protein Degradation Is Differentially Controlled


Chapter 19 / Genetic and Paragenetic Information

19.1 The Principle of Genetic and Paragenetic Information

19.2 Self-Assembly

Self-Assembly Is Under Tight Genetic Control

The Initiation of Self-Assembly Is Accelerated by Seed Structures

The Conformation of Proteins May Change During Self-Assembly

19.3 Aided Assembly

Bacteriophage Assembly Requires Accessory Proteins and Occurs in a Strict Sequence Order

Aided Assembly Is Common in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

19.4 Directed Assembly

One Bacterial Protein Can Assembly into Two Types of Flagella

Prion Proteins Occur in Normal and Pathogenic Conformations

Tubulin Dimers Assemble into Different Arrays of Microtubules

Centrioles and Basal Bodies Multiply Locally and by Directed Assembly

Ciliated Protozoa Inherit Accidental Cortical Rearrangements

19.5 Global Patterning in Ciliates

The Global Pattern in Ciliates Is Inherited During Fission

The Global Cell Pattern Is Maintained During Encystment

Global Patterning Is Independent of Local Assembly

19.6 Paragenetic Information in Metazoan Cells and Organisms


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Last modified: 28 November 2000