Analysis of Biological Development (K. Kalthoff)

Detailed Table of Contents



Chapter 20 / Cell Differentiation

20.1 The Principle of Cell Differentiation

Each Organism Has a Limited Number of Cell Types

The Differentiated State Is Generally Stable

The Same Cell Type May Be Formed Through Different Developmental Pathways

20.2 Cell Differentiation and Cell Division

Some Cells Divide in the Differentiated States

Other Cell Populations Are Renewed from Stem Cells

Stem Cells May Be Unipotent or Pluripotent

20.3 Stem Cell Development in Hydra

The Organization of Hydra is Relatively Simple

Interstitial Cells Contain Pluripotent and Unipotent Stem Cells

20.4 Growth and Differentiation of Blood Cells

The Same Universal Stem Cell Forms All Types of Blood Cells as well as Endothelial Cells

Progenitor Cell Commitment May Depend on Stable Control Circuits of Genes and Transcriptional Factors

Blood Cell Development Depends on Colony-Stimulating Factors (CSFs)

Erythrocyte Development Depends on Successive Exposure to Different CSFs

The Abundance of Blood Cells Is Controlled by Cell Proliferation and Cell Death

20.5 Genetic Control of Muscle Cell Differentiation

Myogenesis is Controlled by a Family of Myogenic bHLH Proteins

Myogenic bHLH Proteins Have Partially Overlapping Function in Vivo

Inductive Signals Regulate Myogenic bHLH Gene Activity

Myogenic bHLH Proteins Interact with Cell Cycle Regulators

Myogenic bHLH Proteins Cooperate with MEF2 Factors in Activating Muscle-Specific Target Genes

20.6 Unexpected Potency of Stem Cells and Prospects for Medical Uses


Chapter 21 / Pattern Formation and Embryonic Fields

21.1 Regulation and the Field Concept

21.2 Characteristics of Pattern Formation

Pattern Formation Depends Upon Cellular Interactions

The Response to Patterning Signals Depends on Available Genes

The Response to Patterning Signals Depends on Developmental History

Patterning Signals Have a High Degree of Generality

21.3 The Concept of Receiving and Interpreting Positional Value

21.4 Limb Regeneration and the Polar Coordinate Model

Regeneration Restores the Elements Distal to the Cut Surface

Intercalary Regeneration Restores Missing Segments Between Unlike Parts

Limb Regeneration Resembles Embryonic Limb Bud Development

The Polar Coordinate Model Is Based on Two Empirical Rules

The Polar Coordinate Model Explains Supernumerary Limb Formation from Misaligned Regenerates

21.5 Morphogen Gradients as Mediators of Positional Value

A Morphogen Gradient Can Specify a Range of Positional Values and Polarity to a Field

Positional Values Specified by Morphogen Gradients May Elicit Differential Gene Activities and Cell Behaviors

Morphogen Gradients Confer Size Invariance on Embryonic Fields

Activin Can Form a Morphogen Gradient in Xenopus Embryos

Insect Development Has Been Model by Morphogen Gradients and by Local Interactions


Chapter 22 / Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Pattern Formation in the Drosophila Embryo

22.1 Review of Drosophila Oogenesis and Embryogenesis

22.2 Cascade of Developmental Gene Regulation

22.3 Maternal Genes Affecting the Anteroposterior Body Pattern

The Anteroposterior and Dorsoventral Axes Originate From the Same Signal

The Anterior Group Generates and Autonomous Signal

The Posterior Group Acts by Depression

Many Posterior-Group Genes Are Also Required for Germ Line Development

The Terminal Group Relies on the Local Activation of a Receptor

22.4 Segmentation Genes

Gap Genes Are Controlled by Maternal Products and by Interactions Among Themselves

Pair-Rule Genes Are Controlled by Gap Genes and by Other Pair-Rule Genes

Segment Polarity Genes Define the Boundaries and Polarity of Parasegments

Midway Through Embryogenesis, Parasegmental Boundaries Are Replaced with Segmental Boundaries

22.5 Homeotic Genes

Homeotic Genes Are Expressed Regionally and Specify Segmental Characteristics

The Homeotic Genes of Drosophila Are Clustered in Two Chromosomal Regions

Homeotic Genes Are Part of a Complex Regulatory Network

22.6 The Dorsoventral Body Pattern

22.7 The Compartment Hypothesis

Compartments Are Controlled by the Activities of Specific Selector Gene Activities

The Ultrabithorax+ Expression Domain Coincides with a Compartment

Engrailed+ Controls the Anteroposterior Compartment Boundary

Apterous+ Controls the Dorsoventral Compartment Boundary

22.8 Appendage Formation and Patterning

Compartment Interactions across Boundaries Organize Pattern Formation within Compartments

Decapentaplegic Protein Forms a Morphogen Gradient in the Wing Imaginal Disc

22.9 Patterning Genes in Other Insects


Chapter 23 / The Role of Hox Genes in Vertebrate Development

23.1 Strategies for Identifying Patterning Genes in Vertebrates

Genes Are Cloned on the Basis of Their Chromosomal Map Position

Promoter Trapping Identifies Patterning Genes

Vertebrate Genes Can Be Isolated with Molecular Probes from Drosophila Genes

23.2 Homeotic Genes and Hox Genes

The Homeodomain is a Cooperative DNA-Binding Region

Hox Genes Can Be Divided in Paralogy and Orthology Groups

The Homeodomain is Highly Conserved in Evolution

23.3 The Role of Hox Genes in the Anteroposterior Body Pattern

The Order of Hox Genes on the Chromosome Is Colinear with Their Expression in the Embryo

Boundaries of Hox Genes May Cause Transformations Towards More Anterior Fates

Overexpression of Hox Genes May Cause Transformations Toward More Posterior Fates

Only Some of the Control Systems of Hox Gene Activity Are Evolutionarily Conserved

23.4 The Dorsoventral Body Pattern

A Lobster May Be Viewed as an Upside-Down Rabbit

Dorsoventral Patterning Is Controlled by the Same Genes in Flies and Frogs

23.5 Pattern Formation and Hox Gene Expression in Limb Buds

Limb Field Initiation Is Affected by FGF Signaling and Hox Gene Expression

T-box Genes Control the Difference Between Hindlimb and Forelimb

The Proximodistal Pattern Is Formed in the Progress Zone

Signals From Somites and Lateral Plate Specify the Dorsoventral Limb Bud Axis

A Zone of Polarizing Activity Determines the Anteroposterior Pattern

Sonic Hedgehog Protein Has Polarizing Activity

Hox Gene Expression Mediates Anteroposterior Limb Patterning

23.6 The Principle of Reciprocal Interaction


Chapter 24 / Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Pattern Formation in Plants

24.1 Reproduction and Growth of Flowering Plants

Spore-Forming Generations Alternate with Gamete-Forming Generations

Plant Embryos Develop Inside the Flower and Fruit

Meristems at the Tips of Root and Shoot Allow Plants to Grow Continuously

24.2 Genetic Analysis of Pattern Formation in Plant Embryos

Similar Methods Are Used for the Genetic Analysis of Plant and Animal Development

Pattern Formation in Plant Embryos Involves 25 to 50 Specific Gene Functions

Groups of Genes Control Distinct Patterning Events

24.3 Genetic Control of Flower Development

Floral Induction Genes Control the Formation of an Inflorescence

Meristem Identity Genes Promote the Transition from Floral Meristems to Inflorescence Meristems

24.4 The Role of Homeotic Genes in Flower Patterning

Arabidopsis Has Homeotic Genes

Three Classes of Homeotic Genes Determine the Morphological Characters of Four Flower Whorls

Double and Triple Homeotic Phenotypes Confirm the Genetic ABC Model

Homeotic Genes are Controlled by Regulator Genes, Mutual Interactions, and Feedback Loops

Other Plants Have Patterning Genes Similar to Those of Arabidopsis

Antirrhinum Has Genes Controlling Organ Variations Within the Same Whorl

24.5 Molecular Analysis of Homeotic Plant Genes

The agamous+ Gene Encodes a Transcription Factor

Genetic and Molecular Studies Reveal Orthologous Genes between Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum

The Known Plant Homeotic Genes Have a MADS Box Instead of a Homeobox


Chapter 25 / Experimental and Genetic Analysis of Caenorhabiditis Elegans Development

25.1 Normal Development

Hermaphrodites and Males

Fertilization, Cleavage, and Axis Formation

Founder Cells

Gastrulation, Organogenesis, and Histogenesis

Larval Development

25.2 Localization and Induction During Early Cleavage

The First Cleavage Generates Blastomeres with Different Potentials

P Granules Are Segregated into Germ Line Cells

Par Genes Affect Cytoplasmic Localization

Three Maternal Effect Genes Generate a Localized Activity that Promotes EMS Identity

Determinant Activity for the EMS Blastomere

Determination of Anterior Pharyngeal Muscle Cells Requires Multiple Inductive Interactions

P2 Polarizes EMS to Form Unequal Daughter Cells

25.3 Heterochronic Genes

Mutations in the lin-14+ Gene are Heterochronic

The lin-14+ Gene Encodes a Nuclear Protein That Forms a Temporal Concentration Gradient

The lin-4+ Gene Encodes Small Regulatory RNAs with Antisense Complementarity to lin-14 mRNA

Down-Regulation of lin-14+ Expression Is Initiated by a Developmental Cue

25.4 Programmed Cell Death

Programmed Cell Death in C. elegans Is Controlled by a Genetic Pathway

The Strategy of Genetic Mosaic Analysis Shows That ced-3+ and ced-4+ Act Cell-Autonomously

The egl-1, ced-9, and ced-4 Gene Products Control the Initiation of Apoptosis

The Genes ces-1+ and ces-2+ Control the Programmed Death of Specific Cells in the Pharynx

The Product of a Human Gene, bcl-2+, Prevents Programmed Cell Death in C. elegans

25.5 Vulva Development

The Vulval Precursor Cells Form an Equivalence Group

The Gonadal Anchor Cell Induces The Primary VPC Fate

A Hypodermal Signal Inhibits Vulva Formation


Chapter 26 / Sex Determination

26.1 Enviromental Sex Determination

26.2 Genotypic Sex Determination

26.3 Sex Determination in Mammals

Maleness in Mammals Depends on the Y Chromosome

Dosage Compensation in Mammals Occurs by X Chromosome Inactivation

The First Morphological Sex Difference Appears in the Gonad

The Testis-Determining Factor Acts Primarily in Prospective Sertoli Cells

26.4 Mapping and Cloning of the Testis-Determining Factor

Translocated Y Chromosome Fragments Causing Sex Reversal Are Used to Map TDF

The SRY/ Sry Function Is Necessary for Testis Determination

The Mouse Sry+ Gene Can Be Sufficient for Testis Determination

The SRY+ Gene Controls Primary Sex Differentiation

26.5 Sex Determination and Sex Differentiation in Drosophila, C. elegans and Mammals

One Primary Signal Controls Multiple Aspects of Sex Differentiation

The X:A Ratio Is Measured by Numerator and Denominator Elements

Drosophila and C. elegans Have Master Regulatory Genes for Sex Differentiation

Dosage Compensation Mechanisms Vary Widely

The Somatic Sexual Differentiation Occurs with Different Degrees of Cell Autonomy

Germ Line Sex Differentiation Involves Interactions with Somatic Gonadal Cells


Chapter 27 / Hormonal Control of Development

27.1 General Aspects of Hormone Action

27.2 Hormonal Control of Sex Differentiation in Mammals

The Synthetic Pathway for Male and Female Sex Hormones Are Interconnected

The Genital Ducts Develop from Parallel Precursors, the Wolffian and Mllerian Ducts

Male and Female External Genitalia Develop from the Same Embryonic Primordia

27.3 Hormonal Control of Brain Development and Behavior in Vertebrates

Androgen and Estrogen Receptors Are Distributed Differently in the Brain

Androgens Cause Seasonal and Sexually Dimorphic Changes in the Brains of Birds

Prenatal Exposure to Sex Hormones Affects Adult Reproductive Behavior and Brain Anatomy in Mammals

27.4 Hormonal Control of Insect Metamorphosis

Insect Molting, Pupation, and Metamorphosis Are Controlled by Hormones

Puffs in Polytene Chromosomes Reveal Genes Responsive to Ecdysone

Multiple Ecdysone Receptors Have Tissue-Specific Activities

Early Regulatory Genes Diversify and Coordinate the Responses of Target Cells to Ecdysone

27.5 Hormonal Control of Amphibian Metamorphosis

The Hormonal Response in Amphibian Metamorphosis Is Organ-Specific

Amphibian Metamorphosis Is Controlled by Thyroid Hormone

The Production of Thyroid Hormone Is Controlled by the Brain

Various Defects in Metamorphosis Cause Paedomorphic Development in Salamanders

The Receptors for Ecdysone and Thyroid Hormone Share Many Properties


Chapter 28 / Organismic Growth and Oncogenes

28.1 Measurement and Mechanisms of Growth

Growth is Defined as Change in Mass

Growth May Be Isometric or Allometric

Growth Occurs by Different Mechanisms

28.2 Growth Analysis by Heterospecific Transplantation

The Growth Potential of a Limb Is a Property of the Limb's Mesoderm

The Optic Cup and the Lens of the Eye Adjust Their Growth Rates to Each Other

28.3 Growth Hormones

28.4 Growth Factors

Nerve Growth Factor Promotes the Growth and Differentiation of Certain Neurons

Other Growth Factors Affect Multiple Target Cells in a Variety of Ways

The Effects of a Growth Factor May Depend on the Presence of Other Growth Factors

28.5 Mechanical Control of Cell Survival and Division

28.6 Cell Cycle Control

28.7 Tumor-Related Genes

Oncogenes Are Deregulated or Mutated Proto-oncogenes

Proto-oncogenes Encode Growth Factors, Growth Factor Receptors, Signal Proteins, Transcription Factors, and Other Proteins

Oncogenes Arise from Proto-Oncogenes Through Various Genetic Events

Tumor Suppressor Genes Limit the Frequency of Cell Divisions

28.8 Growth and Pattern Formation

Patterning Signal Control Cell Cycling and Growth

Local Cell Interactions Affect Cell Division and Growth

Organisms Measure Growth by Mass or Size Rather Than by Cell Number


Chapter 29 / Senescence

29.1 Statistical Definition of Senescence

29.2 Evolutionary Theory of Senescence

The Mutation Accumulation Hypothesis Focuses on the Age Distribution in Natural Populations

Senescence Can Be Ascribed to Antagonistic Pleiotropy

According to the Disposable Soma Hypothesis, Every Individual is the Temporary Carrier of His/Her Germ Line

29.3 Characterized Genes That Affect Animal Life Span

Life Span-Extending Effects of Mutations in C. elegans Depend on the Environment

Drosophila Mutants Reveal Correlation between Stress Resistance and Longevity

The Gene Mutated in Persons with Werner Syndrome Encodes a Helicase

29.4 Caloric Restriction

29.5 Damage from Oxidants and Organismic Senescence

Oxidative Phosphorylation Generates Aggressive Oxidants as Intermediates

Oxidants Damage Cellular DNA, Lipids and Proteins

Oxidative Damage Causes Senescence

Superoxide Radical Stimulates Cell Division and Growth

29.6 Limited Cell Division and Telomerase

Somatic Mammalian Cells Show a Limited Capacity for Proliferation

Chromosomal Ends Are Protected by Telomeres

Telomerase Activity Allows Unlimited Cell Proliferation

Loss of Telomerase Activity is a Safeguard Against Cancer


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Last modified: 28 November 2000