Dr. Stuart Reichler’s Spring Bio 301M Homework #2
Should be emailed to sreichler @ mail.utexas.edu by Friday, February 23 at 10am

    We (students, professor, and TA) are going to work together to determine the topics we will study for the latter part of the class.  Now that each of you have submitted an article that you feel would be worthwhile to study, we are all going to work together to decide which articles we will cover.  Please email me your top 5 choices, numbered from 1 (favorite) to 5 (fifth favorite), and a short, less than 100 words description of why you chose each of these five article.  Your rationale for choosing the articles should include why you think it is important for us to study these topics, and/or why you think the topics are interesting.  The articles are listed below, and each article is numbered.

    The format of the assignment should be as follows:
(Following this format will allow us to compile the information by computer, so please follow these instructions.)

The numbers of your 5 favorite articles from most favorite to least favorite separated by commas.
3, 22, 9, 44, 15

Your name

Bio 301M

1) Favorite:  Article number
This is my favorite article because...

2) Second Favorite:  Article
This is my second favorite article because...

3) Third Favorite:  Article
This is my third favorite article because...

4) Fourth Favorite:  Article
This is my fourth favorite article because...

5) Fifth Favorite:  Article
This is my fifth favorite article because...

    Please include your assignment in the body of an email and send it to me by 10am on 2/23/07.  This homework will be graded on a scale of 0-4 points based on your rationale for choosing the five articles.  I will subtract 0.5 points for each day late.  After I receive all of your submissions, I will post the schedule for the rest of the semester.

Articles: in no particular order:

Death, Disease and Deformity; Using Outbreaks in Animals as Sentinels for Emerging Enviornmental Health Risks
Craig Stephen and Carl Ribble
Global Change & Human Health
Volume 2, Number 2/ December, 2001
November 02,2004

      Is the enviornment you live in safe for your health? This article tackles the subject that there maybe a bit more then just the distrubing diseases some people may experience. Maybe it has a bit more to do with our surroundings. Could we be taught to locate a hazardous enviornments? By taking a closer look at a diverse number of dieases we can breakdown the enviornments that may be the cause of unhealthy living organisms. Taking a closer look at the elements that appear in our daily life. Elements such as our water and our air that we depend on to give us life each day.

2. “Modeling differential extinctions to understand big cat distribution on Indonesian islands”

by: David M. Wilkinson

      Hannah J. O’Regan

Journal of Global Ecology and Biogeography

Volume 12 Issue 6

pp. 519-524

November 2003


The article seeks to answer the question of which species of large cats, tigers or leopards, in Indonesian islands is most prone to extinction. This is shown with the help of a model called the VORTEX which is a population extinction model that has aided the scientists in finding which cat is more likely to survive over many generations.

It would be interesting to talk about this article in class because it deals with the survivability of big cats demonstrating that although being a tiger- the largest cat with a smaller population doesn't mean they are more likely to be extinct faster than the leopards with the largest population. This relates to species of all kinds because there are many factors like genetics and environment variation that affect every living thing on earth as generations go through time. The information we get from studies like these reveal how connected we are to these and other species, making a full circle on how ecological changes affect us.

" Injury and Environmental Epidemiology a converging Agenda"
Elihu D. Richter; Stephen M. Reingold
Global Change and Human Health
Vol.3 Number 1
pages. 4-15
July, 2002
This article discusses the harmful effects of driving gas based motor vehicles. It also suggest possible solutions for reducing mortality from road trauma which in turn creates strategies for reducing air pollution and the risk of climate change. The authors of the articles suggest that if speed is reduced just by 10 kph in Sweden the death toll would decrease by 5 percent and it would saving an average of 750,000 dollars. The cost direct and indirect from persons killed, dead, crippled, maimed, and disabled to the economy and health care system are massive. Because so many of the victims are young, total years lost per life per victim are high, as in the pain and grief. In those parts of the world where motor vehicles use is rapidly increasing such as Russia there has been a major  jump in the number of road deaths. Therefore Third transportation creates multiple revenues to increase air quality,and land use therefore reducing the strain on the green house gasses, impacts on green belts, and road deaths. Defining and evaluating society wide strategies, which move more goods and more people with fewer vehicles would reduce injury and climate change.
The article posses three questions:
1. Is the criterion, " The greatest good for the greatest number", sufficient to measure success of modern transportation?
2. Should reduction in deaths and injury be the sole criterion for progress?
3. If everyone just car pooled and took alternate transportation's such as the bus or the train to point A to point B will death rates really decrease, control air pollution, and possibly save the climate?
This article would be interesting to study in class because I feel like the society we live in is numb to seriousness of climate change, death rates caused by motor vehicles and the deterioration of the air quality. If everyone did the speed limit and took the bus or train a couple times a week they would be working to save the greater good and more importantly themselves.

Baked Alaska
Herman, Anne L.
Sierra May/Jun 2000, Vol. 85 Issue 3, p18

The article I chose talks about global warming in different spectrums. It's
main focus is Alaska. It gives information of the affects of global warming,
mainly calculated changes such as temperature change, amount of ice melting, to
the amount of food available and lifestyles for the people in Alaska. It also
talks about polar bears! Who doesn't love polar bears? Many only know the
surface of global warming's affects and to know the affects of it to actual
people versus the polar bears gives a better sympathetic understanding of the

I chose this topic because this will be a very important issue for our futures.
It has been predicted that this topic will be a hot issue in the political
spectrum and to have a better background of the topic to help with our
political decisions seems appropriate.

Assessment of Associations Between Climate and Infectous Diseases: A comparison of the Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the National Research Council (NRC), and United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP)
John Hopkins
Global Change & Human Health
Volume 3, Number 1/ July 2002
Pages: 67-72
The IPCC, NRC, and the USGCRP all perfomed came up with hypothesis on how Global Warming was contributed to the rising numbers of humans being infected with diseases all across the world. The three groups created experiments to elimate the hypothesis that was not supported by facts. They came to find out that each of their hypothesis were supported by different facts so there were not any hypothesis eliminated. Climate changes and infectous diseases are said to be related in that climate changes cause environmental and social changes, and those changes contribute to the population and health issues that Global Warming create.   Some of the issues that the panels brought up were "infectous diseases, thermal stress, extreme weather events, air pollution, coastal water issues, food yields and nutrition, human adaptation, demographic and economic disruption." I find it interesting and think that this article will be interesting to the rest of the class because this problem is something that we, the people are aware of. What better subject is there to talk about than something that is taking place right now, today. The earth is suffering to Global Warming issues and noone is fully aware of how and why these things are happening. I would like to know:
How can climate changes cause humans and/or animals to catch infectous diseases?
Can Global Warming be adapted to by humans and animals?
Is there anything that we as humans can do to protect ourselves from the problems associated with Global Warming?
If Global Warming continues what will happen to humans 100, 200, or 300 years from now?
Why are some countries more vunerable to Global Warming than others?

Smell Test: How Politics Influenced A Big Clean-Up Deal---Tiny Start-Up Wins Border Sewage Contract; A Meeting with Cheney
Author: Scot J. Paltrow
Wall Street Journal
A1 pages 1-7
29 January 2007
      This article discusses the problem with the sewage spill into the Tijuana River and the canyons and surf of Southern California. The flood of raw sewage surges into the Mexican Border and neighboring California. To help control the sewage the government has chosen an unusual solution, they gave a start up company with no experience in treating waste water, authority to build and operate a treatment plant in Mexico.
      The questions posed about this event is whether or not this start up company is really ready to help control this big problem with the sewage. Already they have missed a few deadlines and are being question whether or not the have taken the steps that they claim they have such as, obtaining commitments for financing and essential permits and land.
      The pollution causes health hazards, a weakened local economy, low income prices and harm to endangered wildlife, according to the people who live in the neighborhood. It is also affecting the estuary, a wildlife reserve, that is located between the border and Imperial Beach, through which the Tijuana River empties into the ocean.
      A plan known as the Bajagua Plan has prevailed even though, it faced opposition from all the relevant federal agencies in the late 1990s. It is said to hinder the ongoing efforts to address the region's wastewater treatment needs. But after being revised Clinton signed it and paved a way for a new treaty with Mexico allowing the Bajagua Project. This article also deals with controversy with the pushing of the bill through for this project and the lobbyist who did it.
     The article would be a good article to discuss in class because it deal with an environment issue as well as politics and how they played a role in the proposal of this project and how they continue to play a role in getting it underway. As well as controversy in efforts to help clean up this sewage problem that is a hazard to the community of Tijuana.

Comparing the quality of draft environmental impact statements by agencies in the United States since 1998 to 2004
Kelly Tzoumis, Environmental Impact Assessment Review
volume 27, pp 26-40, received 5 June 2006;  accepted 25 August 2006; available online 9 October 2006
            This article asks whether or not the United States government is complying accurately with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The act requires that the government issues draft environmental impact statements (DEIS) for every major project that may effect the environment. Researchers study the statements issued to assure that the government is acting legally and in an environmentally friendly manner.
            The article also asks why the accuracy and the scores of the DEIS did not improve during the time span from 1995 to 1997. The main point of the article, however, is to ask if the scores have improved from 1998 to 2004. Tzoumis explains the scoring system and statistics in detail in the copy. In addition, the author presents information on agencies that make the issuing of DEIS necessary. The agencies include the Bureau of Land Management, the Army Corps of Engineers (the agency with the most “inadequate documents”), the Federal Highway Administration and the Forest Service.
            The information in the article is particularly interesting because it allows readers to understand many American laws associated with environmentalism, which further helps build opinions and knowledge of the government and its ties to the environment. After studying the information presented in this article, students will have enough understanding and awareness to ask, is the government using an adequate or insufficient means to measure environmental issues? Being able to take an educated stance on issues such as those associated with political and environmental situations is an important part of being an individual. Once opinions are formulated, there will be plenty of opportunity to create class discussions in which students can share ideas, opinions and learn from one another.
Bug Life, Graciela Flores, Natural History, volume 116 issue 1, pg 13-13, Feb. 2007

When do insects tend to be most prolific? This question analyzes when
insects produce the most, in the cold or heat. How will insects, the most
abundant animals on Earth, respond to a warmer climate? If global warming
continues, then temperature will increase, so this question asks what will
happen to insects if global warming continues? The data was taken on the
growth population of 65 different insect species. Insects are the most
abundant animals on this earth. A warming of just two Fahrenheit degrees
actually will double the number of offspring from a single whitefly, which
already produce 1.3 million offspring in a three-month period. She discovers
that the results support her “warmer is better” hypothesis. Global Warming is
going to cause and unforeseen consequence if we continue to ignore this crisis.
As a result, it’s possible we will have an overabundance of insects. The
reason I think we should study this topic is because it definitely has a lot to
do with the environment and the outcome of Global Warming.
Sanderson, Eric W. "How Many Animals Do We Want to Save? The Many Ways of Setting Population
     Setting Population Target Levels for Conservation." BioScience 56.11 ( Nov. 2006):912-922

Biologists are determining how many wildlife animals are they willing to save. They are deciding whether to set population levels to conserve animals. The article shows the conservation plans of setting population levels. The article compares the different approaches people use to conserve wildlife. The comparisons raise questions such as: How many grizzly bears should be in Yellowstone National Park? Is it ecologically functional? The article questions the laws in which are associated with animals.

Global Warming: Coming to Your Backyard?", Roger Di Silvestro, National Wildlife, Volume 45 Issue 2, pages 14-17, Feb/Mar 2007.
This article looks at the effects global warming could have on plants and insects, and in turn, how those negative effects could greatly affect the human population.  Specifically, warmer and shorter winters resulting from global warming might lead to a larger population of insects, including those that carry diseases.  Also, plants such as poison ivy were shown to thrive in conditions with high carbon dioxide levels.  Other plants linked to bringing about serious allergies have also been shown to thrive in studies.  The article also discusses plant growth and how excessive amounts of carbon dioxide would speed that process, perhaps leading to deficiencies in plants’ nutritional value.  As most of us know, global warming is quickly becoming a major problem.  What’s more, it will be an even larger problem to our children and grandchildren.  An issue with so much on the line is definitely in our best interest to investigate. 

Environmental Perspectives and Behavior in China, Harris, Paul, Environment and
Behavior, volume 38, 5-21, 2006

Include a short description of the question(s) posed in the article and the
reason that this article would make for an interesting class. Do not attach
the article or paste it into your email.

The article "Environmental Perspectives and Behavior in China" provides an
interesting introduction into an area of rapid environmental transformation. It
focuses on the underlying culture, and attitudes that form a people's reaction
to their environment. The article provides insight into the interest in and
dissemination of information, philosophical and psychological perception of the
environment, and resultant behavioral trends in China. Based on the findings of
Chinese language research, the article attempts to summarize and relate the
situation to english readers while asking what can be done to improve the
environmental situation within the constructs of a specific culture. I believe
an in-depth class on the effect of human culture on environment and vice-versa
and how we can improve our environment on some large and socially practical
level would be fascinating.

The World Melts and the Masses Mobilize." By Josie Glausiusz. Discover Magazine; Volume 28 Issue 1, p26-27, January 2007.
(obtained through Academic Search Premier database, UT Libraries)

This article discusses the rate at which global warming is increasing, and the environmental, political and social consequences that accompany the rise in greenhouse gas emissions.  The article answers the questions 1) Who is responsible for global warming?  2) How does/will global warming affect the environment and thereby, the human race?  3) What legislative and social efforts are being done to reduce greenhouse emissions that cause global warming?
The article states facts about the rate earth's glaciers are melting and how glacial melting will induce a change in sea level, thereby changing the coastal landscapes of the world.  Additionally, the article describes legislative attentions to the problem; it describes what the US government and other state legislatures are doing, or not doing, about the problem, and how they are coming up with solutions to deal with global warming.  The article also calls to attention the social issue global warming has become-the issue is not one to be dealt with by only government entities, but rather has become a mainstream issue that everyone should be conscious of.

Challenges of Climate Change: An Artic Perspective, Robert W. Corell, AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp. 148-152, June 2006.
In the article, Challenges of Climate Change: An Artic Perspective, the author addresses the fact that in the recent decades the average temperature of the Artic has nearly risen at twice the rate of the rest of the globe.  The author projects that due to Artic Warming-

The reaction to these predictions proposes the question "how can we stop it?"  

This article is very relevant to the recent news and politcs surrounding the issue of global warming. I was intrigued by this article because the information given was easy to understand, and sets you up to ask even more questions regarding the effects of global warming.  I chose this article also because you can immediately relate to the problems created by the Artic warming.  The fact that the current generation in the artic region will be exposed to 30% more UV radiation in their lifetime than previous generations absolutely stunned me.  But even more shocking is the information that I received that states that as more of the highly reflective glaciers melt, the more the ocean expands, and due to it's light absorbant feature- the more the water will continue to heat! The problems created continue to grow.  I would be interested to see how our class would react to this article, and would love to study the topic further.

Risks from Microbs on the Rise: Why and Ways to Prevent Future Epidemics
Jennifer Fisher Wilson, Anals of Internal Medicine, volume 140 Issue 6 pp.
497-500, 16 March 2004

My topic I chose would be a great never ending controversy for entire semester.
This article discusses the numerous diseases in our society and how we are
infected with them. Animal-borne infections such as hantavirus, avian influenza
and the West Nile virus all fall in to the category of zoonotic (animal-borne)
diseases. Factors that help spread these diseases to humans are land use and
global travel. Transportation from developing countries is transporting their
diseases like hepatitis virus as well. Bioterrorism is another big issue that
was realized after anthrax and small pox virus. Scientists have learned that
ducks transmit the influenza virus to pigs, chickens, and other animals that
later come into contact with humans. It seems as though infections and
diseases are forming faster than we can manage. There was a question in the
article asking why are these new infections appearing in humans. A general and
director of the Center for Public Health says that these “new” infections have
already existed for quite some time now in nature. I think this is a great
topic to discuss in class because this affects everyone. There are so many
diseases that we need to be aware of. There are a number of to reduce these
life threatening diseases. The World Health Organization listed three keys to
obtain global health. 1) Containing known infectious diseases, 2) detecting and
responding to unexpected infectious diseases, 3) improving preparedness and
public health infrastructure in countries world wide. Not dealing with these
disease ahead of time have caused economy millions and millions of dollars. I
think this controversy is important to us and we should know how this is
affecting us.

BMJ McFadden et al. "Allergy to Hair Dye." BMJ.com. February 2007

The article that I read involves the issue that allergies to hair dye are increasing.  The cause of these allergic reactions is the chemical para-phenylenediamine(PPD) and other related substances.  The article states that this was such a prevalent problem that in the 20th century, many European countries banned its use in hair dye products altogether.  It is hard to totally eliminate the use of PPD from permanent hair dye products because there are no known safer alternatives to this chemical.  Additionally, the problem of PPD is becoming more prevalent as more and more people each year have allergic reactions to it.  A trend of younger people   using the product is on the rise, and even though people are told that they will have an allergic reaction to the product, they continue to use it.  We should discuss this article in class because many people use hair dye products and it is a trend very popular among our age group.

Joling, Dan. "Sound Study Explores Orca Behavior." Juneauempire. 5 Feb. 2007.     The Assoc. Press. 5 Feb. 2007 <http://www.juneauempire.com/stories/020507/sta_20070205009.shtml>

This article is about, how a marine researcher name Kelly Newman is trying to find out whether killer whales are eating fur seals. Her  purpose though for this research is to  add to the knowledge of killer whales.  Last summer she captured the sound of orcas killing fur seals with a hydrophone but she has only heard and not seen  because her visual  observations are limited under water. Her research  takes place in the waters off the coast of Alaska were many other scientist have been researching the effect of global warming.
This is an interesting article because it involves the environment around  us and what is happening right now. How mammals are beginning to adapt to this new environment. Killer whales usually eat fish but are now suspects in diminishing the population of fur seals.  Will we like killer whales have to adapt to a new environment?

Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on, E. Cardis et al., Journal of Radiological Protection, Vol. 26, p127-140, April 24, 2006.

The questions posed in this article are:  How did the Chernobyl disaster of 1986 affect humans living and working close to the plant.  What health problems (specifically cancer) arose as a result of the disaster, and to what was the impact they had on humans.
I think this topic would be cool for class because we could study the effect radiation has on humans, both on the cell level and the broad scale.  Besides the fact radiation may place humans at an increased risk of cancer, we can explore how radiation can affect DNA replication and evolution.
Title:	Find More Like ThisFrom HIV prevention to HIV
protection: addressing the vulnerability of girls and
young women in urban areas.

Authors:Mabala, Richard1 rmabala@unicef.org

Source: Environment & Urbanization; Oct2006, Vol. 18
Issue 2, p407-432, 26p, 5 charts

The Question that this article tries to answer is how
do we look affect the AIDS epidimic in a positive way,
because what we're doing now isn't working?
The reason that this article would make for an
interesting class is because this article focuses on
the fact that we need to create a different approach
to diminishing AIDS. It shows that the environment,
both physically and socially, are affecting young
woman and girls in becoming effected with the HIV
virus. Also, it shows that without proper
intervention, the affects it could leave for the

"Texas Independent Producers & Royalty Owners Ass'n v. Environmental
Protection Agency.  Redefining the Role of Public Participation in the
Clean Water Act", Jennifer L. Seidenberg.  Ecology Law Quarterly; Vol.
33 Issue 3, p699-724, 1 October 2006.

The benefits we have received from the Clean Water Act of 1972 are
starting to grind to a halt.  The EPA regulates those who can and
cannot use certain chemicals by issuing permits, but there is starting
to be less and less public oppinion in the decision making process,
and figures from the EPA report that our water is becoming more
polluted.  This article looks at water protection from a legal
standpoint and shows how the EPA has diverged from the original
intentions of the Clean Water Act by cutting back on public access and
ability to participate in the protection of our waters.

Evolution and Creationism in America: 1880-2000, Bleckmann, Charles A., BioScience, Vol. 56, No. 2, pg. 151-158, Feb. 2006.
          Given that the title of this class is "Ecology, Evolution & Society"; I think it is absolutely necessary that we discuss Evolutionism vs. Creationism.  I'm not sure if this discussion is already in the cirriculum, but I'm sure that it would be an interesting and thought-provoking discussion if both sides are presented honestly and effectively. Here in Austin, TX, there is probably a great bit of opinions and knowledge from our student body on both theories. Since the publishment of Darwin's "Origin of Species," the "battle for the beginning" has been a raging discussion throughout or society and especially our educational system. 
          This article presents the debate that has been going on for the past 120 years.  Over the past several decades, our court system has heard trial after trial from advocates of both the theory of evolution and that of creationism (or "Intelligent Design").  The question presented in this article is not about the specifics of both of the theories, but actually about the age-old debate between the two theories at the college and professional level. 
          I think it would be interesting and very beneficial to all the students if we were allowed to do our own research on the two theories and then had a discussion about them both and how they collide in scientific study and our society today.  I know that this discussion may seem to be trivial or contoversial to some, but I believe that after our discussion both sides will be enlightened and educated about the theories of Evolutionism and Creationism.
The biomass of human bodies now exceed by a hundred times that of any large
animal species that ever existed on land. Lynas, Mark. Newstatesman; 23 Feb.
2004, Vol. 133 Issue 4676, p23-25, 3p.

Mark Lynas makes a bold statement in the title of the article alone.
Questioning the course of the world and 21st-century politics, Lynas affirms
the conditions of humans being the dominate species on Earth. He also poses
questions and concerns on wheteher or not terrorism is an issue more important
than the proposed global warming concerns, and the imbalance of Earth's
creatures. Homosapiens are taking over and the ecological survival for other
speciesis at risk. "Who is to blame for the blindness?," Lynas questions. Going
on to claim later in the text, how the current government is assisting in this
environmental destruction. "They have approved logging of forests, and they are
trying to gut the Endangered Species Act, among numerous other blindly
destructive measures."
In addition to these claims, Lynas challenges humanity: "Will we emerge at
the end of the century with a depleted, devastated planet...Or will humanity
take sufficient remedial measures to ensure that a reasonable proportion of the
living biospehere survives?" This article would be an interesting text for
class, because it raises several questions on the survival of nature, the
biodiversity of species on Earth, possibly overpopulation, the effects of a
constant increase of carbon dioxide, global warming, and most of all, what
exactly creates this proposed "elegant equation of both human equality and
ecological survival on Earth." How exactly can we win this fight of "preventing
the clash between human civilization and nature"?

“Doomsday Vault to Avert World Famine”.  Pearce, Fred. New Scientist, Vol. 189 Issue 2534, pg12, 1/14/2006

This article explains details about a vault designed to hold about 2 million plant seeds for safekeeping. It is being created as sort of a last resort solution to major problems in case all other seed banks fail from loss of electricity or other problems such as nuclear war, terrorism, severe climate changes, etc. The vault is comprised of copies of seeds from other seed banks and “will represent the products of some 10,000 years of plant breeding by the world’s farmers”.  Sponsored by the Norwegian government, the vault will be located in the Norwegian Artic, and be made of reinforced concrete. Blast proof doors also protect it, and while it will not always be patrolled by guards, “the mountains are patrolled by polar bears”. The well-built defense and location is in address to current concerns with other seed banks, as they face problems like poor security, ageing refrigeration systems, and lapses in electrical technologies. The cold temperatures of the artic would allow the seeds to survive.
I believe this would make an interesting article to be discussed in class. It is interesting to see what solutions are currently being cooked up to serve the environmental needs of our planet. It attempts to answer questions such as: If we do continue to harm our biosphere, and it would be too late to redeem our actions, what would be our course of action, what is the solution? A lot of the solutions to global warming and climate changes are planned for the present or near future, and do not address the future or “last resort” situations. This article is one way to address that.


Have we overstated the tropical biodiversity crisis?, William F. Laurance, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 22, Pages 65-70, February 2007.

The main question posed in this article is whether or not there is a large threat of extinction of species in tropical forests.  Tropical forests are home to a very complex range of species.  Deforestation has frightened many, because they believe it has and will cause many species to become extinct.  Contrary to this popular belief Wright and Muller-Landau explain how extinction is not a major concern in this article.  They support their argument with future predictions of urban and rural population and how they affect the existence of tropical forests and in tern how that affects life.  I think this will make an interesting article to discuss in class because many people do believe there is a serious threat of extinction to wildlife in tropical forests due to deforestation and growth of population.

Global Warming:Coming to your backyard?, Di Silvestro Roger, National Wildfire,
Vol.45 Issue 2, pgs. 14-17,Feb/Mar2007

If you're accustomed to thinking of global warning as something happening out
there--say,in the Artic or the Antarctic or high in the atmosphere--you may be
in for a shock! This article would make an interesting topic for our class, for
it simply goes beyond the range of global warming being viewed in icy regions of
the world and typically start where no one would lest expect it---in your own
surroundings. The article itself has no questions posed within the
documentation, however, the author did provide another site for informing
people about global warming and raises several questions of how this isssue is
being reviewed by our government, how we as people should take into
consideration the fact of global warming, he talks about the global population
growth, and even provide global warming tips along with colorful and vibrant
illustrations of how this issue can be resolved. The best part(in my opinion)
about this site is that as one of the links you can choose the state that your
living in and fully be able to see how global warming is affecting your own
state in particular. Not only does this site inform the reader in regards to
global warming and its' effects but, it also gives people the opportunity to
make contributions to help save the wildlife who are suffering from this issue
and yet, to become active members of this group.

"A Campaign Gore Can't Lose", Richard Cohen, The Washington Post,
April 18, 2006,

I believe that global warming is an important issue that people, including
myself, do not know enough about. The article is an overview of Al Gore's film
an "Inconvenient Truth." I think it would be interesting to not only be
educated about the subject of global warming, but to also watch the video. The
article raises questions about the extinction of polar bears, the future of
states like New York and Florida, and the flooding of Calcutta that will
produce 10 times as many evacuees as Hurricane Katrina. I think this subject is
education that we can not afford to miss. It may not affect us, but it will
most likely affect our children and grandchildren.

Stormy debate on hurricanes and global warming, Megan Sever, Geotimes, [0016-8556], Page 1, July 2006

The article that I chose talks about the recent affect of hurricanes on the U.S. and throughout the world. It recognizes that in the last decade and more specifically the last few years there has been a strong uprising of hurricanes in the U.S., and that they have had devastating affects on our country. The main theme of the article is the fact that many people and weather analysts believe that this recent uprising of hurricanes is directly correlated to global warming, and the fact that we are carelessly burning things and polluting our atmosphere for our own expense. The article suggests that all this global warming we are doing is having a strong affect on our weather, and causing numerous hurricanes and other terrential weather patterns in the U.S.  I find the article relevant to our class because we all know and have in a way experienced the devestation that hurricane Katrina and other hurricanes have caused in the last couple of years, and that if global warming is indeed directly associated with this horrific weather than we need to know about it, and know what we can do to help stop it.

Degree of Difficulty, Charles Fishman, Fast Company, Issue 112, p94-99, 2007

This article dicusses a threat posed by global warming which actually puts the
need for immediate action about it into effect for Americans now. Global
warming is a serious issue which should be taken into consideration by student
like us anyway, but this article helped me to realize that it is something that
is affecting us today. It discusses one of America's top ski resorts, and the
challenges they face in staying open because of global warming. The article
shows how it is beginning to directly affect average Americans and talks about
solutions and ways the resort has begun to deal with the situation.

Prospects for enhancing carbon sequestration and reclamation of degraded lands
with fossil-fuel combustion by-products,

A. V. Palumbo, J. F. McCarthy, J. E.
Amonette, L. S. Fisher, S. D. Wullschleger, and W. Lee Daniels,

Advances in Environmental Research,

Volume 8,

pages 425 - 438

March 2004

This article is basically about mitigation on behalf of the environment as a
whole, specifically concerning CO2 levels in the atmosphere. The questions it
presents are which strategies would be the most effective in fighting the
rising CO2. It reminds the reader that little is known about the storage of C
in various situations and that the excavation and burning of fossil fuels (esp
coal)is a serious cause of the rise of carbon. Degraded lands hold promise for
a dump zone for carbon by-products, solving two problems at once. One of the
main suggestions is that we must find a way to deal with this problem at least
until a change to renewable energy systems has been made. A possible solution
would be to find an efficient way to return industrial by-products to the
degraded lands and solve both issues. The article goes on to explain the
different challenges presented in returning carbon to agricultural lands.
Another problem enters the challenge of having unbalenced metal toxin in the
soil, capable of making the ground infertil. Basically C sequestration
proposes the challenge of defining the effects of carbon in the environment,
what type of ecosystem is optimal for returning it to the ground, and the best
way to do it.

The article would be interesting for the class as it proposes an imediate
problem that our environment faces, that requires direct attention. This is
muddy water for industry in America which means it will likely get little
financial support, as currently money for renewed energy source research is
limited. The article explains that a research system is necessary to
understand how implementation can be achieved without consequences. This
system has not been developed because defining changes in the soil's organic
matter is complicated and challenging. There would also be social and
economical, as well as political challenges that would come to light in pursuit
of this challenge. The diversity of this subject deserves more investigation.

Title: Letting the gene out of the bottle: the population genetics of genetically modified crops.
Authors: Chapman, Mark A, Burke, John M
Source: The New phytologist vol:170 iss:3 pg:429 -443 yr:2006

This article mainly deals with the effects of genetically modified foods now and the effects they may have on our envirnoment tomorrow.  Some of the questions posed are:
Despite the potential benefits that include economics and other things what could genetic engineering do to our environment?  What role is natural selection playing in our world today?  What are the effects of transgenes once they escape? and What strategies can we use to contain the spread of transgenes?  In this article it begins with the success of geneticly engineered foods and how it has become a part of today's agriculture.  We have stepped over new hurdles in feeding more people with less land, creating more healthy foods for those people that lack it, and we are now slowy ridding the world of those less sufficient organisms that we at one point depended on for survival.  However, we now must turn to the possible future consequences.  What could this do to our environment?
This article would make for an interesting class because of the fact many people wonder, "What exactly they eat?"  Plus when food is involved more people are likely to pay attention.  Ths is also a topic that involves all people, vegeterians and carnivores as well.  This article makes people wonder; it at times brings suspense.  What exactly is in my food?  What if I die?  What if there is some genetic disorder caused by genetic engineering and we all are effected.  These  questions will arise as a result of this topic, and so, with these questions will arise interest in the class.

The brain, aggression, and public policy. By: Blank,
Robert H. Politics & the Life Sciences, Vol. 24 Issue
1/2, p12-21, 10p; (AN 22901813), Mar-Sep2005

Q: How might the change arrange of polices conclude
their implications relating to aggression?

Summary: They fill that the most vital scientific
study is one conducted on your own brain being that in
relates to everyone. They look at the visualizations
and the activity (mental) that tend to set off
observable behaviors. When you try to predict, modify,
or control, your behavior “it raises intriguingly
vexing questions along the political – philosophical
line.” When seeing provocative terms the brain
interventions from electro. Therapy scalping, to
electronic stimulation of the brain. More recent
developments include transcranial magnetic stimulation
that discharges the activity in the brain where
electrodes deliver electrical stimulations to treat
Parkinson’s disease. When hearing about the way they
observe the causes and effects of the way the brain
acts and at what point does it do so interest me. This
affects everyone and the reach can resolve or help
prevent problems form occurring if we can learn why?
and how? this happens.

“The Association between Low Level Exposures to Ambient Air Pollution and Term
Low Birth Weight,” Rose Dugandzic, Linda Dodds, David Stieb, and Marc Smith-
Doiron, “Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 2006, 5:3,
February 17, 2006

This journal article is based around the increasing assumption that air
pollution has a direct effect on child development and growth during a woman’s
pregnancy. A study is carried out on a large sample of Nova Scotia women, with
the journal article including a background, methods, results, and an informed
conclusion. It then goes on to more specific ways to fix the problem, stating
for example that results conclude the first trimester to be the critical time
that air pollution is most harmful to a child’s development. This article is
very informative and persuasive in that it also displays graphs and tables in
order to give a more visual understanding of the collected data. The topic of
such things as air pollutants and energy consumption, on a small scale, are of
a great interest to me being that they are such small things released by
individuals but can go so far as to lead to infant mortality, serious health
issues, and on a larger scale global warming. These environmental issues are
more important today than ever with CO2 levels on the rise, very possibly
leading to the destruction of several life forms, not only arctic animals like
polar bears but also humans. This would be a great topic to discuss in class so
that we can all learn more about the causes, risks, outcomes, and possible
solutions to pollutants and global warming.

TSUNAMI HAS LASTING EFFECTS, American Geophysical Union press release, Vol. 48 Issue 6, p7-7, 2/5p
The article I have chosen discuss the effects of the Tsunami such as contamination of the drinking water, groundwater, monsoons, water storage, water supply, and environmental conditions. It also discuss how scientist are trying to find solutions to these problems, and most of the problems can be fixed with time and effort the more complicated ones such as water pollution, and environmental conditions are still trying to find a way to be solved. The questions are then asked how can we stop the sea water from contaminating the water people drink,this could easily be said to just build levies, but with contamination  already spiking to it's highest and people getting sick everyday the question becomes not so much how can we stop it, but how can we find a solution that can start working now and not in ten years. Another question that is asked, is how can we stop the spread of the sickness and death not only for the people that tsunami effected but for the food that these people eat. The contamination of the sea water and the drinking water is only worsening the position of the people not only are they getting sick, they can't eat contaminated food. combine the two you have sickness spreading and little food. So what solution can the scientist come up with? Again building levies if fine but stop the problem with the sickness and lack of food that has already happened and continuing and a regular basis.
I thought this would be a great article to do a lecture of because it brings a lot of different things to table that make a lecture interesting. Like the contamination and the spread of sickness. There are so many different ways you go with this article, and plus I just wanted to know what monsoons are. 

The Forest Killers.  Huber, Peter. Forbes. Vol. 177 Issue 7. p.100. April2006
In this short article, the author questions the efforts of environmentalists to endorse an alternative source of energy. Recently environmentalists have been protesting to consider the use of cellulosic ethanol as a better and more "environmental friendly" source of energy.  The author however debates that doing this would actually harm the environment. He questions the use of cellulosic ethanol by implying that the carbon cycle will be thrown off . In order to get high-grade fuel you must take apart cellulose, which is what cows do when they eat waste crops. They eat waste crops, but some seeds from the plants don't get digested, they get deposited and prefertilized in another spot. This causes more plants to grow and you have a balance in nature. Building chemical refineries to do this same job would mean mass production, but they would cause a disruption to the whole ecosystem. The author also questions the use of this (cellulosic ethanol) as an alternative source of energy by claiming that it would cause the leveling of forests and destroy wetlands. I found this article to be interesting because in promoting the use of cellulosic ethanol, environmentalists are actually promoting the destruction of the ecosystem and wetland and leveling of forests. Environmentalists would ironically be advocating harming the environment.

America Has Spoken: Time for a Change, Larry J. Schweiger, National Wildlife, Vol. 45 Issue 2, p9-9, 2/3p, February/March 2007.
This article confronts Global Warming, but in a slightly different manner than most are used to seeing when it comes to science, the environment, and the things that need to be done to save it. We all know that actions need to be taken, but the question is, who must take those actions in order for said actions to be useful. By utilizing this article as a source of learning material, we will not only be learning about Global Warming and it's effects, we will be learning about the politics behind lowering harmful emissions. Most of us understand the dangers of global warming, yet few realize the answers could be as simple as signing a piece of paper. Let this article, and this political focus on Global Warming be a cornerstone for learning in our classroom this semester.
Title: Human's ecological footprint in 2015 and Amazonia revealed, Environment
date: February 6, 2007 04:28 PM
Source: Ecological Society of America
Biology News Net: <a

I thought this article was an interesting topic that can further be discussed in
class as a group. Why is it that urbanization has less of an negative affect on
the environment than human population? How was this study conducted that these
were the results?

Convective life cycles and scale interactions in tropical waves,George N. Kiladis and Brian E. Mapes,Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans,Volume 42,Pages 1-2,December 2006.

One of the questions that the article brings up is that if we get a better understanding on the interactions of tropical convection then we can see how tropical preciptation effects the global atmoshpere.I think that this is very important because of how the world is changing and how tropical storms are having a bigger affect on us.

Impacts on Hardwood Hammocks Near Urban Areas
The Journal of wildlife management , MARK A. BARRETT and PETER STILING, Key Deer
Volume 70 issue 6, page
numbers-1574-1580, December 2006

This article talks about the relationship between deer population and the
diversity and density of plants. Hardwood Hammock is a type of tree that grows
in Florida where many deer live. The study wants to find a correllation between
the urbanization of different areas and the deer populations in those areas.
They then want to draw conclusions about the rest of the state with the harwood
hammock areas to find reasons why deer prefer some places over others. The main
problem of this research is to find out why deer are residing in urban areas and
to find a way to get them out of these areas because it is dangerous for them
and the people who live there.