For an outline, click here
to read text on reproductive tactics, click here
References on Reproductive Tactics
Ballinger, R. E. 1983. Life-History Variations. Chapter 11 (pp. 241-260) in Lizard Ecology: Studies of a Model Organism, edited by R. B. Huey, E. R. Pianka, and T. W. Schoener. Harvard University Press.
Bauwens, D. and R. Diaz-Uriarte. 1997. Covariation of life history traits in lacertid lizards: a comparative study. Amer. Natur. 149: 91-111.
Brockelman, W. Y. 1975. Competition, the fitness of offspring, and optimal clutch size. Amer. Natur. 109: 677-699.
Cole, L. C. 1954. The population consequences of life history phenomena. Quart. Rev. Biol. 29: 103-137.
Crews, D. 1984. Gamete preduction, sex hormone secretion, and mating behavior uncoupled. Hormones and Behavior 18: 22-28.
Crump, M. L. 1974. Reproductive strategies in a tropical anuran community. Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas 61: 1-68.
Duellman, W. E. and L. Treub. 1986. Biology of amphibians. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Dunham, A. E. and D. B. Miles. 1985. Patterns of covariation in life history traits of squamate reptiles: the effects of size and phylogeny reconsidered. American Naturalist 126: 231-257.
Dunham, A. E., D. B. Miles, and D.N. Reznick. 1988. Life history patterns in squamate reptiles. Chapter 7 (pp. 441-522) in C. Gans and R.B. Huey (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia, Volume 16, Ecology B. Defense and Life History. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.
Emlen, J. M. 1970. Age specificity and ecological theory. Ecology 51: 588-601.
Fitch, H. S. 1970. Reproductive cycles in lizards and snakes. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. 52: 1-247.
Gadgil, M. and W. H. Bossert. 1970. Life historical consequences of natural selection. Amer. Natur. 104: 1-24.
Gadgil, M., and O. T. Solbrig. 1972. The concept of r and K selection: Evidence from wild flowers and some theoretical considerations. Amer. Natur. 106: 14-31.
Goodman, D. 1974. Natural selection and a cost ceiling on reproductive effort. Amer. Natur. 108: 247-268.
Grime, J. P. 1977. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Amer. Natur. 111:1169-1194.
Grime, J. P. 1979. Plant strategies and vegetation processes. Wiley, New York.
Howard, R. D. 1988. Reproductive success in two species of anurans. Chapter 7 (pp. 99-113) in Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.) Reproductive Success. Univ. Chicago Press.
Huey 1977. Egg retention in some high altitude Anolis lizards. Copeia 1977: 373-375.
Huey, R. B., E. R. Pianka, M. E. Egan, and L. W. Coons. 1974. Ecological shifts in sympatry: Kalahari fossorial lizards (Typhlosaurus). Ecology 55:304-316.
Hutchinson, G. E. 1951. Copepodology for the ornithologist. Ecology 58: 571-577.
Hutchinson, G. E. 1961. The paradox of the plankton. Amer. Natur. 95: 137-145.
MacArthur, R. H. and E. O. Wilson. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton Univ. Press.
McLain, D. K. 1991. The r-K continuum and the relative effectiveness of sexual selection. Oikos 60: 263-265.
Murphy, G. I. 1968. Pattern in life history and environment. Amer. Natur. 102: 390-404.
Niewiarowski, P H. 1994. Understanding geographic life-history variation in lizards. Chapter 2 (pp. 31-49) in L. J. Vitt and E. R. Pianka (eds.) Lizard Ecology: Historical and Experimental Perspectives. Princeton Univ. Press.
Pianka, E. R. 1969. Notes on the biology of Varanus caudolineatus and Varanus gilleni. Western Australian Naturalist 11: 76- 82. Download pdf
Pianka, E. R. 1970. Comparative autecology of the lizard Cnemidophorus tigris in different parts of its geographic range. Ecology 51: 703-720. Download pdf
Pianka, E. R. 1971. Ecology of the agamid lizard Amphibolurus isolepis in Western Australia. Copeia 1971: 527-536. Download pdf
Pianka, E. R. 1976. Natural selection of optimal reproductive tactics. American Zoologist 16: 775-784. Download pdf.
Pianka, E. R. 1986. Ecology and Natural History of Desert Lizards. Analyses of the Ecological Niche and Community Structure. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Pianka, E. R. 1992. Reproductive tactics. Pages 189-209 in R. Dallai (ed.) Sex origin and evolution. Proc. of International Symposium on Origin and Evolution of Sex, Siena, September 9-11, 1991. Mucchi Editore, Italy. Download pdf.
Pianka, E. R. 1993. The many dimensions of a lizard's ecological niche. Chapter 9 (pp. 121-154) in E. D. Valakos, W. Bohme, V. Perez-Mellado, and P. Maragou (eds.) Lacertids of the Mediterranean Basin. Hellenic Zoological Society. University of Athens, Greece. Download pdf
Pianka, E. R. and W. S. Parker. 1975. Age-specific reproductive tactics. American Naturalist 109: 453-464. Download pdf
Pianka, E. R. and H. D. Pianka. 1976. Comparative ecology of twelve species of nocturnal lizards (Gekkonidae) in the Western Australian desert. Copeia 1976: 125-142. Download pdf
Rand, A. S. 1967. Predator-prey interactions and the evolution of aspect diversity. Atas do Simposio sobre a Biota Amazonica 5: 73-83.
Schall, J. J. and E. R. Pianka. 1980. Evolution of escape behavior diversity. American Naturalist 115: 551-566. Download pdf
Schoener, T. W. 1979. Inferring the properties of predation and other injury-producing agaents from injury frequencies. Ecology 60: 1110-1115.
Schwarzkopf, L. 1994. Measuring trade-offs: a review of studies of costs of reproduction in lizards. Chapter 1 (pp. 7-29) in L. J. Vitt and E. R. Pianka (eds.) Lizard Ecology: Historical and Experimental Perspectives. Princeton Univ. Press.
Shine, R. 1980. Costs of reproduction in reptiles. Oecologia 46: 92-100.
Shine, R. and J. J. Bull. 1979. The evolution of live bearing in lizards and snakes. Amer. Natur. 113: 905-923.
Shine, R. and L. Schwarzkopf. 1992. The evolution of reproductive effort in lizards and snakes. Evolution 46: 62-75.
Sinervo, B. 1994. Experimental tests of reproductive allocation paradigms. Chapter 4 (pp. 73-90) in L. J. Vitt and E. R. Pianka (eds.) Lizard Ecology: Historical and Experimental Perspectives. Princeton Univ. Press.
Stearns, S. C. 1976. Life history tactics: a review of the ideas. Quart. Rev. Biol. 51: 3-47.
Vitt, L. J., J. D. Congdon, and N. Dickson. 1977. Adaptive strategies and energetics of tail autotomy in lizards. Ecology 58: 326-337.
Wilbur, H. M. and P. J. Morin. 1988. Life history evolution in turtles. Chapter 6 (pp. 387-439) in C. Gans and R.B. Huey (eds.) Biology of the Reptilia, Volume 16, Ecology B. Defense and Life History. Alan R. Liss, Inc.
Winemiller, K. O. 1992. Life history strategies and the effectiveness of sexual selection. Oikos 63:318-327.
Zweifel, R. G. and C. H. Lowe. 1966. The ecology of a population of Xantusia vigilis, the desert night lizard. American Museum Novitates 2247: 1-57.
Back to Herpetology Home Page
Pianka lab page