Gas exchange in animals (Fig. 30.1)
Fish (Fig. 30.2) and immature amphibians have gills. Fish have the most efficient
respiration with countercurrent flow. (Fig. 30.3)
lungs (Fig. 30.4)
Birds (Fig. 30.5)
The Mammalian Respiratory System. The human respiratory system (Fig. 30.6)
lungs and bronchi (singular: bronchus)
bronchial tree and bronchioles
alveoli (singular: alveolus)
The mechanics of breathing (Fig. 30.7)
Gas exchange (Fig. 30.9) (Movie)
hemoglobin molecules (Fig. 30.8) of the red blood cells.
Lung Cancer - Risks and Causes
Lung Cancer in the United States (Fig. 30.10)
Mutations to two of the most important tumor-suppressor genes and the proteins they produce, Rb and p53, are implicated in development of cancer. (Fig. 9.14)
The Rb Protein
acts as a brake on cell division; mutations in the gene producing it cause cell
division to go out of control.
The p53 Protein, also called the "Guardian Angel" of the cell, inspects the DNA to make sure it is ready for cell division.
Smoking Causes Lung Cancer Movie
Lung cancer kills more people than any other kind of cancer.
Carcinogens in smoke cause mutations in lung cells.
Carbon monoxide in smoke blocks the uptake of oxygen, making a person more likely to become winded during exertions.
cancer rates in men and women. (Fig. 30.11)
Cancer cells grow at rapid rates and often metastasize to surrounding, or even distant, tissue.
Exposure to some chemicals, asbestos, radiation can also cause lung cancer.
Emphysema and chronic bronchitis - 2 major causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD)
Comparison of emphysema alveoli and healthy alveoli. X-section of lung with emphysema.